Ever heard of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) or “The Fountain of Youth”?” With proper nutrition and exercises, your body is normally designed to have optimal metabolism.
Unfortunately, with an illness, advanced age and/or unhealthy lifestyle, your body starts to experience various deficiencies that see its efficiency decline remarkably. Low nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels is among these deficiencies, and that’s where NAD+ supplement comes in handy to close in the deficiency gap, particularly in promoting healthy aging process.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) refers to a coenzyme comprising both adenine and nicotinamide. Any living cell contains this chemical compound, which is a derivative of Nicotinamide Riboside. The levels of NAD in a human body influences his or her rate of aging.
There are two types of NAD, namely, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + hydrogen (H) (NADH). The former has two additional electrons, and that’s what sets it apart from the latter.
What is NAD+?
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a pyridine nucleotide that ‘s present and very important in every living cell. This pyridine nucleotide aids many biological processes where it serves as a key cofactor as well as a substrate. These processes include energy production, healthy DNA maintenance and repair, immunoregulation and gene expression. That explains the NAD+ aging sign reversal power.
NAD+ also plays an integral role in the secondary messenger signaling as well as immunoregulatory functions.
As a youth molecule, NAD+ has been identified as a key factor in the aging process. Various studies have supported the position that the NAD+ level in the human body has a direct correlation with the youthfulness of a person. The higher the NAD+ levels, the younger the body cells, tissue and the entire body outlook. That forms the basis of NAD+ aging reversal popularity.
On the other hand, NAD+ deficiency can lead to fatigue and various diseases. As such, adequate NAD+ levels are undoubtedly important for a person’s health.
How Does NAD+ Work?
When your body is unable to achieve the healthy enzyme and hormone production levels, it starts to manifest various health issues such as reduced agility, memory issues and reduced thinking rate. This is because it lacks sufficient NAD+ and NADH levels to support the normal regeneration and function of body cells.
Particularly, the key NAD+ function is to support the body’s metabolic response, by enabling the transfer of electrons from a molecule to another, through a process known as the redox reaction. Through redox reactions, nutrients are able to free the energy stored in the weaker double oxygen bond.
Normally, your body cells need energy from the bloodstream to power them to perform various metabolic functions. Particularly, the energy they require is stored as fatty acids and glucose. So, the primary role of the NAD+ enzyme here is to facilitate the transportation of the energy sources from the bloodstream to the relevant cells.
When the fatty acids and glucose release energy, the NAD+ enzyme facilitates the transportation of the energy to the mitochondria for further conversion into cellular energy. Otherwise, in case of NAD+ deficiency, the transfer of energy in the cell is disrupted, and this causes mitochondrial dysfunction, which accelerates the aging process.
For every NADH, NAD+ is able to generate three ATP molecules. As a result of the energization of the cells, you become more energetic, both mentally and physically, because NAD+ has given your aging-related biological processes a boost through oxidation.
Specifically, the main NAD+ function involves activating enzymes responsible for redox reactions in the body. These enzymes are collectively known as oxidoreductases. They include Sirtuin enzymes (SIRT), poly-ADP-ribose polymerases and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase (CD38).
Focusing on Sirtuin activation, it is worth noting that the primary function of sirtuin enzymes is to turn off the genes that facilitate aging. The genes include those that take part in fat synthesis and storage, inflammations and the regulation of blood sugar. For sirtuin enzymes to achieve that, they require NAD+ enzymes as these NAD molecules help them to pluck extract acetyl groups from proteins for modification.
Therefore, an increase in NAD+ levels translates into a higher number of active Sirtuins. This results in increased mitochondrial respiration as well as enhanced insulin sensitivity.
The effects of such metabolism improvements lead to a reversal of the effect of the brain’s advancing age, thanks to NAD+ aging reversal power. Also, improved insulin sensitivity helps your body to maintain healthier blood sugar levels. Consequently, your body cells appear younger and behave in a more youthful manner, giving you a general more youthful look as well.
Additionally, NAD+ has been identified as a molecule that’s significantly responsible for extracellular signaling, which forms the basis of cell-to-cell communication. Also, it acts as a novel neurotransmitter, transmitting information from the nerves to smooth muscle organs’ effector cells.
The Benefits/Function of NAD+
There are many NAD+ benefits and functions which include:
1.Protection from age-related degenerative conditions
The NAD+ anti aging benefits is among the major reasons why health-savvy people want to see their NAD+ levels healthy all the time. As people age, their DNA damage increases, and this causes a reduction of the NAD+ levels, SIRT1 activity decline and decreased mitochondrial function. This happens because of cellular oxidative stress, which, in layman’s language, means that the body’s antioxidants and the free radicals aren’t balancing.
Consequently, an aging person more susceptible to various health conditions such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cataracts, diabetes and hypertension, among others.
Fortunately, lots of research shows that NAD+ provides oxidative stress protection to body cells. Therefore, taking NAD+ foods, supplements or adopting other NAD+ level improvement interventions can help the older people, especially those who are beyond 50 years of age, to maintain good health even as their stay on earth increases.
The additional NAD+ improves the functionality and support the growth of mitochondria. It plays a crucial role in the maintenance of sufficient ATP levels in cells, which would otherwise have been compromised by advanced aging.
As earlier mentioned, NAD+ supports the energy production ability of your body’s mitochondria. When your mitochondria don’t produce enough energy, vital organs such as heart, brain, muscles and lungs are unable to perform optimally and that leads to fatigue and reduced motivation.
On the other hand, when your body has sufficient NAD+ level, these organs are able to perform at healthy levels and as a result, you feel energized, motivated, lively and with a clearer mind. Every living cell needs this coenzyme as it promotes the production of the adenosine triphosphate.
The cells use adenosine triphosphate to produce the energy that your different organs need for the desired performance. When your body is energized, your cells are able to fight general fatigue feelings effectively.
3.Improved brain function
Fatigue slows down your cognitive function. It makes you feel as if your mind is hazy or cloudy. However, we’ve already seen that NAD+ offers fatigue relief. So, the coenzyme boosts your brain function by triggering sufficient energy production for your brain cells, enabling them to fight fatigue. As a result, your mind becomes more alert and energized enough to handle various tasks that requires you to think.
4.Improved cell stress resistance
In one study aimed at establishing the impact of NAD+ on the cellular oxidative stress, researchers found out that NAD+ treatment made the lab cells more stress-resistant. On the other hand, the cells that were not supplied with NAD+ succumbed to oxidative stress. Therefore, it means that this coenzyme increases the lifespan of your body cells, helping your body to fight various disease-causing organisms more effectively.
5.DNA repair for a longer lifespan
In your day-to-day life, you are exposed to various things and conditions that are likely to damage your DNA. Damaged DNA shortens your lifespan. However, with enough supply of NAD+ in your body, these coenzymes facilitate the repair of the damaged repair by transporting the electrons to areas with damaged DNA. This is according to many studies that have come up with the conclusion that the replenishment of NAD+ extends the lifespan of an animal or a human being.
6.Better sleep and eating routine
Various researchers have found out that NAD+ has a remarkable influence on a person’s sleep cycle as well the hunger pattern. The time that you normally sleep or wake up and the general flow of your normal day is dependent on your cardiac rhythm. Also, the production of hunger hormones in your body is highly influenced by the chemical compound.
Proper interconnection between sirtuins and NAD+ results in a heathy cardiac rhythm and appetite. Otherwise, the disruption of NAD+ or sirtuins results in unhealthy circadian rhythm, thus poor eating and sleep pattern. Therefore, NAD+ comes in handy for a healthy sleep and eating routine. With these two in check, it will be easy for you to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
By providing all the above benefits tasks, there’s no doubt that NAD+ plays a crucial role in helping people lead a healthy life even at an advancing age.
The Application/Uses of NAD+
1.Improved learning and memory capability
Many people are aware that this chemical compound offers natural
restoration and improvement of the neural pathways in the brain.
Besides, it removes mental and general fatigue, thus improving mental clarity.
As a result, one is able to learn and remember more efficiently.
2.Thicker nails and hair
Nails and hair are mostly seen to define the beauty of a person, especially women. Due to its ability to promote the repair of the damaged DNA, NAD+ is crucial for thicker nails and hair. As such, it is a much-sought-after chemical compound for people who are concerned about their thin hair and/or nails.
3.Better skin health
Advancing age among people comes with skin flaws such as wrinkles, fine lines and uneven complexion. However, those who wants to defy they aging signs take NAD+ supplements, which work pretty well for the purpose. The NAD+ anti aging benefit is very popular.
4.Muscle function improvement
As people age, they become shorter and weak because of muscular dysfunction which comes with old age. However, those who’ve discovered the anti-aging power of NAD+ leverage on it to improve their muscle function.
5.Prevention of age-related diseases
Additionally, people with a low supply of NAD+ in their bodies due to old age look for external sources of the chemical compound to boost their immunity. The additional supply of the enzyme enables their bodies to develop stronger resistance to various illnesses associated with old age.
Although NAD+ is a natural compound, it has to be taken with moderation. According to Food and Drug Administration agency (FDA), the safest NAD+ dosage is at most two grams per day. The recommended period of treatment is 7 to 16 days, depending on the medical history of the user.
The Consequences of Falling NAD+ Levels
It’s paramount for everybody to ensure that they have sufficient NAD+ levels. Increasing
NAD+ levels is necessary for persons experiencing NAD+ deficiency. This is because NAD+ deficiency has several undesirable consequences including:
1. Aging signs
In a young person, the NAD+ and NADH are in higher quantities as compared to the levels found in older people. The reducing NAD+ levels with age leads to reduced SIRT1 activity, thus accelerating the occurrence of the signs of aging. In such case, the most effective way to reverse or prevent those signs is to increase the level of NAD+ in the body. With the coenzyme boost will trigger more SIRT1 activity, thus a more revitalized body outlook and feeling.
Hypoxia is a condition characterized by low oxygen supply in the human body. The condition leads to increased NADH and low NAD+ and is characterized by symptoms such as skin discoloration, confusion, slow heart rate, breathing difficulty, sweating and persistent cough.
People who are suffering from hypoxia can get relief from the symptoms by increasing their NAD+ levels. Those who are at high risk of the condition can also reduce their susceptibility by boosting their NAD+ levels as well.
3. Sunburn and skin damage
Afraid of sunburn or skin damage as a result of sunlight exposure? NAD+ and NADH got you covered. Both offer your skin protection from sun as well as skin cancer by absorbing UVB and UVA spectrums, respectively.
If you experience mysterious fatigue and general body weakness, you could be having low NAD+ levels, thus reduced SIRT1 activity. In such a case, NADH or NAD+ supplementation could relieve the fatigue symptoms through boosting mitochondria function.
5. Metabolic syndrome
Through the activation of Sirtuins, NAD+ improves the function of the metabolism-influencing genes indirectly. As, people with weight management issues due to poor metabolism can achieve their desired weight levels through NAD+. This could also be an effective solution for you if you are afraid of unhealthy weight gain or high LDL cholesterol as a result of metabolism-compromising condition.
6. Heart diseases
NAD+ function in the body influences the mitochondria activity,which is crucial for the proper functioning of the heart. The deficiency of the chemical compound can speed up heart failure, something that nobody would want to experience. So, if you have low Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) levels, perhaps as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury or any other heart disease, you’ll feel better and your heart health will improve upon boosting the coenzyme’s supply in your body.
7. Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Suffering from multiple sclerosis? If yes, then you should consider taping into the benefits of NAD+ powder through NAD+ supplement intake for the disease symptom relief.
Multiple Sclerosis is characterized by a low NAD+ level in the immune system while the nervous system experiences the deficiency of the same. NAD+ supplementation will reduce the deficiency of the chemical compound in the nervous system, thus improving your MS symptoms.
8. Mental health and neurodegenerative conditions
If you experience a mental health or a neurodegenerative condition such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease or stroke, then NAD+ supplementation comes in handy for the restoration of your health. This is because these conditions cause NAD+ deficiency, leading a reduction in your brain energy and dopamine. Since brain energy and dopamine are key components of your mental and nervous systems, your symptoms may get worse if you don’t find a way to increase your NAD+ levels.
How To Increase NAD+ Levels Naturally?
1. Performing physical exercises
As you grow older, physical exercises are essential for your health. With regular physical exercises, your body’s ability to produce NAD+ is given a boost. You need energy to perform the exercise. Therefore, the more you exercise, the more your body produces energy by stimulating more mitochondria production. Consequently, your NAD+ level increases naturally.
2. Regular fasting
Although fasting is majorly practiced as a way of religious dedication, it also has various health benefits to offer, including increasing NAD+ levels and the SIRT1 activation.
3.Avoiding too much sunlight exposure
The ultraviolet radiation from the sun accelerates the aging of your skin. Even worse, excessive exposure to sunlight damages the stores that contribute to the repair of damaged skin cells. This leads to a decrease in NAD+ level. As such, to prevent this from happening and assist your body in maintaining healthy NAD+ level by avoiding too much exposure to sunlight whenever you can. Also, protect yourself from the harmful effects of the sun by covering your skin with quality sunscreen when you are going outdoors on a sunny day.
4. Taking NAD+ supplement
Although healthy balanced-diet nutrition is the backbone of optimal NAD+ supply in our bodies, sometimes something more to be done. Particularly, people who are 50 years of age require more NAD+ than what an ordinary balanced diet can provide. In this case, NAD-infused supplements come in handy. These supplements come in the form of capsules and are easy to find. They contain vitamin B3 (nicotinamide riboside) which is later converted into NAD+ in the body.
5. Sleeping enough
Getting enough sleep every day is another natural way of boosting the levels of the anti-aging chemical compound. A good sleep rest promotes the production of the biological engines in your body.
6.Taking NAD+ foods
Researchers have found out that, nicotinamide riboside, a form of vitamin B3, converts into NAD+ in the body. The coenzymes, just like the body-generated NAD+, are later used in various metabolic processes that result in slowing down or reversing the aging process in a human body. As such, foods that contain this vitamin (NAD+ foods) can offer great NAD+ supplementation.
Foods that contain nicotinamide riboside, and which you can count on to improve your NAD+ level naturally include:
- Dairy milk: Research shows that every liter of cow’s milk contains 9 μmol of NAD+.
Fish: some fish varieties such as tuna and salmon are rich in NAD+. The NAD+ content in one cup of tuna is roughly 20.5mg and 10.1mg for salmon.
- The Crimini mushroom: If you take a cupful of Crimini Mushroom, you’ll have supplied your body with 3.3mg of NAD+.
- Chicken meat: whether stewed, roasted or grilled, one cup of chicken meat will give you 9.1mg of NAD+.
- Yeast foods: Yeast is a richer NAD+ source as compared to dairy milk. Therefore, yeast foods such as cakes and bread can contribute to the replenishment of the NAD+ level in your body. Although beer can also serve as a source of the coenzyme, it should be taken with moderation.
- Green veggies: Some green vegetables are also NAD+ foods , particularly peas and asparagus, are rich in the youth-promoting chemical compound NAD+. A cup of peas contains, 3.2mg of NAD+ while a cup of asparagus has 2mg of the compound.
- Adopting ketogenic diet: Being in keto diet means limiting yourself to foods that are in fat but low-carb. When you adopt this diet, your body enters into a state known as ketosis whereby it uses fat rather than glucose for energy. This makes the NAD+ to NADH ratio to increase.
Some Factors that Decrease NAD+
Low NAD+ levels can be caused by various factors including:
1. Chronic inflammation
Chronic inflammation inhibits NAMPT enzyme and the genes responsible for circadian rhythm. As a result, the NAD+ levels drop.
2. Circadian rhythm disruption
The NAD+ production requires NAMPT enzyme, particularly in the final step of the process. However, when one’s circadian rhythm is disrupted, the genes responsible for the production of the enzyme are compromised and as a result, the production of production of NAD+ in the body reduces.
3. High amount of blood sugar and insulin levels
When the levels of blood sugar and insulin increase excessively, the NADH/NAD+ ratio increases. This means that the amount of NADH is way much higher as compared to the NAD+ level.
4. Alcohol abuse
Plenty of research shows that ethanol stress as a result of Chronic alcohol consumption causes about 20% reduction in NAD+ levels. This is because alcohol causes transitory oxidative damage which interferes with the production of the coenzyme.
5. DNA damage
When the DNA is massively damaged, more PARP molecules will be required to
repair and restore the functionality of the damaged DNA. Since the molecules are
powered by NAD+, therefore it means that their increased involvement could
see a deficiency of the chemical compound in the victim’s body.
6. Low sirtuin activity
Considering that sirtuin regulates the circadian rhythm, reduced sirtuin levels could therefore compromise the circadian ebb and flow. Consequently, the NAD+ level decreases.
Is There Any Side Effects About NAD+?
In most cases, NAD+ supplementation is absolutely safe. Human studies done to establish the safety level of increasing the coenzyme in the body show that a daily 1,000mg to 2,000 mg NAD+ dosage on a daily basis did not have any harmful effects on people.
However, there are a few cases where mild side effects have been reported to occur due to NAD+ intake. These effects include nausea, indigestion, headache, extreme tiredness (fatigue) as well as diarrhea
More Information about NAD+
The NAD+ powder, which is used to make NAD+ supplements, is white, hygroscopic and highly water-soluble. The chemical formula of NAD+ powder is C21H27N7O14P2.
If you are a certified manufacturer and are interested in NAD+ powder for NAD+ supplement manufacturing, ensure that you get it from a reputable source to avoid buying counterfeit. You should verify that you are dealing with a trustworthy seller when buying NAD+ supplement. Note that you can easily order NAD+ powder or NAD+ supplements online.
NAD + coenzyme is a molecule that plays an important role in human health. NAD+ benefits, which include better mental health, stress resistance and DNA repair, outweigh the few side effects that are associated with the supplementation of the coenzyme. Besides, NAD+ anti aging benefit is something that those who want to defy aging signs should focus on through NAD + supplementation. However, it’s important to ensure that you get your Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide/NAD+ powder or NAD+ supplement pack from a reliable source.
- Anderson RM, Bitterman KJ, Wood JG, et al. Manipulation of a nuclear NAD+ salvage pathway delays aging without altering steady-state NAD+ levels. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 24;277(21):18881-90.
- Gomes AP, Price NL, Ling AJ, et al. Declining NAD(+) induces a pseudohypoxic state disrupting nuclear-mitochondrial communication during aging. 2013 Dec 19;155(7):1624-38.
- Imai SI, Guarente L. NAD and sirtuins in aging and disease. Trends Cell Biol.2014 Aug;24(8):464-71.
- Price NL, Gomes AP, Ling AJ, et al. SIRT1 is required for AMPK activation and the beneficial effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function. Cell Metab. 2012 May 2;15(5):675-90.
- Satoh MS, Poirier GG, Lindahl T. NAD(+)-dependent repair of damaged DNA by human cell extracts. J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 15;268(8):5480-7.
- Sauve AA. NAD+ and vitamin B3: from metabolism to therapies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Mar;324(3):883-93.