|3. Lactoperoxidase (LP)|
|4.Immunoglobulin G (IgG)|
|5. Lactoferrin (LF)|
What is protein
Protein is found throughout the body—in muscle, bone, skin, hair, and virtually every other body part or tissue. It makes up the enzymes that power many chemical reactions and the hemoglobin that carries oxygen in your blood. At least 10,000 different proteins make you what you are and keep you that way.
Protein provides energy and supports your mood and cognitive function. It’s a vital nutrient required for building, maintaining, and repairing tissues, cells, and organs throughout the body.
What Are Protein Powders?
Protein powders are concentrated sources of protein from animal or plant foods, such as dairy, eggs, rice or peas. Protein powders come from a variety of sources and are available in several formulations. People use them to increase muscle mass, improve overall body composition and help meet their protein needs.
But Which Type of Protein powder Is Best?
There are so many different types of protein powder options out there, it can feel overwhelming at times. Here below are the 5 best source of protein powder.
Alpha-lactalbumin is a natural whey protein containing a naturally high content of all essential and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), making it a unique protein source. The most significant amino acids in alpha-lactalbumin are tryptophan and cysteine, together with the BCAAs; leucine, isoleucine and valine.
Due to the high content of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, ~26%), especially leucine, alpha-lactalbumin effectively supports and stimulates muscle protein synthesis, making it the ideal protein source for improving muscle health and help prevent sarcopenia during ageing.
Beta-Lactoglobulin (ß-lactoglobulin, BLG) is the major whey protein in ruminant milk and is also present in the milk of other animals, but it is not found in human milk. Beta-lactoglobulin is a lipocalin protein, and can bind many hydrophobic molecules, suggesting a role in their transport. β-lactoglobulin has also been shown to be able to bind iron via siderophores and thus might have a role in combating pathogens. β-Lactoglobulin poses a variety of functional and nutritional characteristics that have made this protein a versatile ingredient material for many food and biochemical applications.
Lactoperoxidase is a natural enzyme found in the milk of most mammals, as well as other body fluids such as tears and saliva. It acts as a catalyst, oxidizing thiocyanate ions in the presence of hydrogen peroxide into hypothiocyanous acid. The acid dissociates in milk and the hypothiocyanate ions react with suphydryl groups to inactivate the metabolic enzymes of bacteria. This prevents bacteria from multiplying and potentially extends the acceptable quality of the raw milk.
Lactoperoxidase is known to have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. According to research published in the Journal of Applied Microbiology, it has antibacterial properties that are helpful for the skin and can eliminate acne-causing bacteria. Lactoperoxidase is also an important component in a combination of ingredients used to prevent yeasts, fungi, viruses and bacteria from growing in cosmetics and other beauty products.
Lactoperoxidase is a glycoprotein with anti-microbial activity, it is used as a stabilizing ingredient to help improve formulation stability and product shelf-life.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most abundant antibody isotype in the blood (plasma), accounting for 70-75% of human immunoglobulins (antibodies). IgG detoxifies harmful substances and is important in the recognition of antigen-antibody complexes by leukocytes and macrophages. IgG is transferred to the fetus through the placenta and protects the infant until its own immune system is functional.
Immunoglobulin can bind to pathogenic microorganisms and toxins to form antibodies, which can improve the immunity of the adult system.
Lactoferrin is a protein found naturally in milk from humans and cows. It is also found in several other fluids in the body such as saliva, tears, mucus, and bile. Lactoferrin is found in highest amounts in colostrum, the first type of breast milk produced after a baby is born. Lactoferrin’s main functions in the body include binding with and transporting iron. It also helps to fight infections.
Lactoferrin is crucial to the increase in immune functions for breastfed infants. It provides antibacterial and immune-supporting activity to human infants. LF is a component of the immune system responsible for defense at the mucosal level, due to its high antimicrobial activity.
Lactoferrin and lactoferrin supplements have been widely studied. Some people take lactoferrin supplements to gain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits.
In industrial agriculture, lactoferrin powder is used to kill bacteria during meat processing.
- Layman D, Lönnerdal B, Fernstrom J. Applications for α-lactalbumin in human nutrition. Nutr Rev 2018;76(6):444-460.
- Markus C, Olivier B, Panhuysen G, et al. The bovine protein alpha-lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stress. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(6):1536-1544.
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- Unfolding of beta-lactoglobulin on the surface of polystyrene nanoparticles: experimental and computational approaches.Miriani M et al. Proteins. (2014)
- Structural changes in emulsion-bound bovine beta-lactoglobulin affect its proteolysis and immunoreactivity.Marengo M et al. Biochim Biophys Acta. (2016)
- Antimicrobial actions of dual oxidases and lactoperoxidase.Sarr D et al. J Microbiol. (2018)Lactoperoxidase immobilization on silver nanoparticles enhances its antimicrobial activity.Sheikh IA et al. J Dairy Res. (2018)
- Lactoperoxidase, an Antimicrobial Milk Protein, as a Potential Activator of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines in Breast Cancer.Sheikh IA et al. Anticancer Res. (2017)
- The Significance of Lactoperoxidase System in Oral Health: Application and Efficacy in Oral Hygiene Products. Magacz M, Kędziora K, Sapa J, Krzyściak W. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar 21
- Lactoferrin-containing immunocomplex mediates antitumor effects by resetting tumor-associated macrophages to M1 phenotype.Dong H, Yang Y, Gao C, Sun H, Wang H, Hong C, Wang J, Gong F, Gao X.J Immunother Cancer. 2020 Mar
- A bovine lactoferrin-derived peptide induced osteogenesis via regulation of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.Shi P, Fan F, Chen H, Xu Z, Cheng S, Lu W, Du M.J Dairy Sci. 2020 Mar 17
- Lactoferrin’s Anti-Cancer Properties: Safety, Selectivity, and Wide Range of Action.Cutone A, Rosa L, Ianiro G, Lepanto MS, Bonaccorsi di Patti MC, Valenti P, Musci G.Biomolecules. 2020 Mar 15
- Clinical Trials of Lactoferrin in the Newborn: Effects on Infection and the Gut Microbiome.Embleton ND, Berrington JE.Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2020 Mar 11