1. Synephrine HCL (5985-28-4) Facts
2. Synephrine Reviews
3. What is Synephrine(5985-28-4)?
4. Mechanism of Action of Synephrine HCL powder
5. Health Benefits of Synephrine
6. Potential Side Effects of Synephrine
7. Synephrine Recommended Usage
8. Top topics for discussion: Synephrine vs Caffeine
9. Purchase Synephrine Supplement Online
10. Conclusion on Synephrine (5985-28-4)
Synephrine HCL (5985-28-4) Facts
Synephrine (5985-28-4) is an alkaloid that is commonly used to form the supplement Synephrine HCL. This article includes the Synephrine facts, Synephrine history, synephrine HCL mechanism of action, health benefits of synephrine, potential side effects/risks of synephrine and synephrine recommended usage.
The use of Synephrine (Cas: 5985-28-4, known as para Synephrine, or p-Synephrine) dates back to many years ago and can be traced back to the native China. The medicinal value of Synephrine was discovered in the region where it first used to treat gastrointestinal ailments such as nausea and constipation. Also, the ancient Brazilians used Synephrine as a remedy to sleeplessness, anxiety and convulsions.
The following are some of the common facts that everyone who intends to use Synephrine should know about the fruit from which the chemical is derived from(bitter orange fruit) :
- The fruit also contains other chemicals among them being ephedrine. The concentration of the latter substance is however very little.
- Bitter orange fruit has been in existence for long and its use stems back to native Asia where it was mainly used to treat stomach complications. It is also highly available in parts of Eastern Africa.
- Traditionally, bitter orange was used to treat nausea, constipation, and indigestion. In the Mediterranean, it was used to treat heartburn, promote weight loss and decrease appetite. Its oil extracts were sometimes applied to the skin, but it has mostly been used in its extract form.
Confusions surrounding Synephrine
Synephrine powder has for long been confused for other substances that are similar to it. This confusion has been so serious that even some reputable scientific journals find it difficult to establish where to classify this chemical appropriately. Some of the substances that are similar but yet different from Synephrine include the following:
- Bitter orange extract. This is primarily the source of Synephrine. However, many people are still not aware that other than this chemical, there exist other substances in the extract that are similar to Synephrine yet very different in terms of their modes of action. For this reason, the bitter orange is known as a reliable solution for the treatment of various diseases and the chemicals responsible for the treatment of these ailments are different from p-Synephrine.
- Phenylephrine. This chemical is structurally very similar to Synephrine, but their modes of action are ways apart. While Synephrine is used for improving the body’s metabolism through thermogenesis, phenylephrine is primarily used as a nasal decongestant. The chemical phenylephrine is also used in surgical operations to dilate the eye’s pupil during an operation. Phenylephrine is made synthetically. On the other hand, Synephrine, is obtained from plant extracts.
- Ephedrine. The bitter orange fruit has also been found to have significant reserves of this Ephedrine. Ephedrine is a very strong stimulant and whose use must be controlled as it is strongly addictive.
The structure of the stimulant ephedrine is similar to that of Synephrine, and this is primarily the confusing bit of the two chemicals. However, the use of ephedrine is prohibited in many places for its adverse effects to humans, especially if you take Synephrine without control. On the other hand, use of Synephrine doesn’t carry any similar side effects, and it is thus considered to be a safer option as compared to ephedrine.
Current Synephrine use
Presently, Synephrine and Synephrine supplements are used for a variety of purposes among them being for the improvement of the body’s metabolism. The stimulant enhances the process of thermogenesis through which the excess fats in the body are broken down to form muscles.
The body responds to this by adopting a leaner well-built look. The stimulant also helps people to maintain a healthy appetite and support a proper metabolism.
How safe is Synephrine HCL Powder?
The safety of Synephrine HCL powder has not been widely doubted as it is the case with other stimulants. This is because the drug has been tested repeatedly and it has been found to be harmless especially if one uses the appropriate dosage.
The most widely anticipated side result after use of any stimulant is the development of high blood pressure which is often accompanied by fast unusual heartbeat rate. However, the use of Synephrine will deliver different side results. This makes it a different and better option to the significant performance-enhancing drugs that are in the market today.
However, some studies show that a combination of caffeine and synephrine HCL powder is likely to cause potentially fatal cardiovascular effects. Nevertheless, other researchers have ruled out such possibility. We are going to see about that debate here later on.
FDA has not issued any warning concerning Synephrine consumption. In fact, in some countries, the use of Synephrine in the place of ephedrine is highly encouraged. This is due to the safety concerns that are often raised when using ephedrine which is a very powerful stimulant. This makes it a likely precursor for high blood pressure and increased heartbeat rate.
Synephrine HCL powder’s use has generated numerous reviews. While there are a few negative ones, most people have been pleased by what the supplement has helped them achieve especially those who desire to lose excess body fats. Some of the things that they say include the following:
James Shaw : James Shaw is a 44-year-old who lives in Liverpool, England. He says,” I’ve been overweight for some time now, and the issue has been stressing me a lot especially when I remember the well-built body that I had during my early thirties. I’ve also been suffering from high blood pressure for about five years now and have always feared using a supplement as my problem could worsen.” Yohimbine: Uses+effects+Yohimbine supplements on sale
“ I was at first given a dosage of 20mg per day, and this was gradually increased as the doctor kept accessing my situation. Luckily, nothing lethal happened within the period and my body improved to the extent that I never expected. Today, I can happily walk without feeling shameful about my body appearance. I’d recommend the use of Synephrine to anyone who’s having weight issues without having any doubt about the result.” She adds.
Katlego Muphulukuzi: Katlego Muphulukuzi is a 29-year-old from South Africa. After using Synephrine, this is what he has to say,” My love for junks went down immensely from the time I started using Synephrine supplements. I also feel more energetic than ever before. I enrolled in the local gym, and within six months, my physique had also changed much; I look more beautiful.”
Paul McLaughlin works at a chemist in Chicago, Illinois: “I’ve been a retail chemist for seven years. In the beginning, we were selling ephedrine, and that was one of the fastest selling drugs in the shop. The scene however changed when the State drug control board came at us for retailing a banned substance. We had to eliminate ephedrine from the shelves or else the chemist would have been shut. After this, great uncertainty came as to how the chemist would run without one of the most widely consumed commodities.
He adds that, “Just while still in this moment, word went round that Synephrine was the new thing to replace ephedrine. I never personally thought that anything could replace ephedrine but the reviews that I got from the customers made me pause to think. People came demanding for the supplement at an alarming rate. The most surprising thing was that even those who I never thought that they could use such a stimulant also came. Some even came with medical prescriptions to buy the supplement.
Our sales tripled in less than a year and up to now, Synephrine is the most bought supplement on the chemist. I’d recommend everyone who has overweight issues to use the drug. I won’t do that to boost my sales. It’s because I’ve experienced what one is set to reap from using the supplement.” Paul is currently on Synephrine. “
Sharon: “I wish I could be able to post my photos before and after the time I started to use Synephrine. I have finally managed to get my dream shape and I’m very happy about it. I would recommend Synephrine to anyone who wants to lose weight without struggling.”
Paul Luol Deng: Paul says, “I’ve had a hard time especially with ladies who want to shed some weight. Unlike men, they are always reluctant to use steroids as they fear that they may affect their reproductive system.”
He add, “I’ve been using Synephrine for long, and they’ve worked well for me. One day, a friend from the US visited my gym and advised me to try Synephrine HCL supplement on my female clients. This didn’t require so much convincing as it is a supplement, unlike the steroids that I tried getting them on earlier. The first few clients were enough to convince the rest about the effectiveness of the supplement. It worked miracles, and they shed excess weight so fast as I combined their dosage with a little caffeine to make it faster. These days, everyone wants to get on this magical supplement even the men.”
Emily: “I’m extremely appreciative to Phcoker for the Synephrine supplements they sent me two months ago. My appetite has reduced and I have begun to experience some significant changes in my body as far as weight is concerned. So far so good.”
Vanessa Ford : Vanessa Ford says, “There’s no better mood booster than Synephrine HCL. At first I thought it was a weak stimulant that would not give me any better feeling than taking my coffee. However, some sixth sense told me to try it out. I made my first purchase, and after beginning the dosage, things started being different. I was all at once energetic that my gym instructor was left wondering where the extra motivation had come from. I’ve continued to use the supplement to date, and all that I can say is that there is no better mood booster than Synephrine HCL.” Orlistat for weight loss: How can it take away fat fast?
Fredrick: “I have managed to shed over five kilos for the last one year, thanks to the magical Synephrine supplement. I can’t thank enough the friend who introduced me to them. They are the best fat burning supplements I know.”
What is Synephrine(5985-28-4)?
Synephrine(5985-28-4) is an alkaloid that is commonly used to form the supplement Synephrine HCL.
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Synephrine is derived mostly from the bitter orange fruit that is highly concentrated in the chemical. However, this fruit is not the only known source of the alkaloid. Other citrus fruits such as lemons have also been found to have Synephrine powder although it exists in minute amounts.
|Synephrine is a good fat burner and help with weight loss. It can also increase blood pressure and this can be a concern to those with heart problems.|
Mechanism of Action of Synephrine HCL powder
The Synephrine mechanism of action explains the various effects that the supplement induces many in the body. The following are some of these effects through which the body ultimately regains a different shape on the bodybuilding front:
1. Effects of metabolism
This is the primary mode of action of the chemical. The drug will increase the rate of thermogenesis. This is done in the liver, and the yield is usually increased energy to the body that is the ultimate desire of any athlete.
The action of Synephrine was conducted on mice, and the following effects that are also similar to what happens in humans were observed:
- There was an increased breakdown of glucose and glycogen. These are the key sources of energy in the body. Their breakdown is therefore expected to bring a new transformation in the energy yield.
- Sugars that were present in the mice’s body were not converted to fats. For any bodybuilder, gaining of fats is the last thing that they would wish for. Instead, everyone wants to burn the excess fats and convert it to muscles.
- This conversion happens at an improved rate when an energy giving supplement is used. This makes Synephrine a valuable supplement for any performance enhancing athlete.
- The amount of ATP present in the mice’s liver was significantly increased. This conversion is beneficial in improving the rate of chemical reactions in this body organ. When the rate of action is improved, the breakdown of fats occurs at a more rapid rate than before.
- More glucose in the mice body cells was consumed. This happens through the stimulating of the enzyme AMPK that is critical in aiding the burning of body fats. The increase in AMPK also leads to more sugar being taken into the body cells where it is broken down to release energy.
- The action of the enzymes a-amylase and a-glucosidase was inhibited. These are the enzymes that are responsible for the digestion of complex starch in the body. The significance of this process is that the occurrence of post-meal blood sugar spikes is largely inhibited.
2. Stimulatory effects
The use of Synephrine will stimulate the action of alpha 1 and alpha two adrenal receptors, but this happens in a significantly lesser degree to the action of phenylephrine and ephedrine. This means that the chances of an individual experiencing an increased heartbeat rate as well as high blood pressure are highly minimized.
The use of Synephrine will also lead to increased activation of the neuromedin U2 receptors. These molecules are located in the hypothalamus in the human brain and are responsible for controlling sleep. The use of Synephrine will stimulate the receptors causing the hypothalamus to induce wakefulness for longer than normal
3. Anti-inflammatory effects
The use of Synephrine will inhibit the activation of NF-kB. This substance is key in causing inflammatory ailments such as asthma. The use of Synephrine has also been found to affect the action of the eotaxin-1 hormone largely. This prevents the movement of eosinophil to an area that is inflamed.
Although not well proved through experiments, the use of Synephrine has been found to inhibit the action of acetylcholinesterase. This chemical is known to cause Alzheimer’s disease.
Health Benefits of Synephrine
While all drugs have their known side effects, they still have advantages when used appropriately. Synephrine has been used for as an alternative to ephedrine. This was after major world drug use regulatory bodies imposed a ban on the use of the latter drug.
Of great concern was the potential for addiction that is likely to arise following the use of ephedrine. Also, ephedrine is an extremely robust stimulant, and it is known to stimulate high blood pressure. Therefore, Synephrine can be used as like for like replacement for ephedrine.
The following are some of the Synephrine benefits that one is set to achieve after appropriate use of the stimulant:
1. Synephrine Weight loss
This is the most apparent issue that many ephedrine users wanted to address when taking the banned drug. Synephrine is as effective as ephedrine in aiding loss of excessive body fats. This will result in weight loss.
The drug also works similarly by causing an improvement of the body’s metabolism. When this occurs, body processes occur at a rapid rate, and excess fats are burned.
The process of fats breakdown is achieved through lipolysis. This involves the influence on receptors that are found in the fat tissues. This will ensure fats breakdown occurs at a faster rate than it would have happened if the individual hadn’t used a supplement.
This process through which excess fats are eliminated and in its stead muscles are generated is known as thermogenesis. It is a naturally occurring process though at a very slow rate.
2. Appetite loss
Most people will have an appetite for at least something that is not nutritionally helpful to their healthy wellbeing. This includes junks such as ice creams, fries, and cookies. Such foods are a thorn in the flesh especially to someone who intends to lose the excessive fats.
This is because the calorific intake determines the rate of fat loss. When so many calories are taken, the process of converting them to muscles rather than fats becomes so tedious for the body.
When one takes Synephrine HCL, the appetite is greatly suppressed. This is advantageous in that one’s crave for junks is put on a check. The individual can now focus on taking foods that are healthy to the body.
Therefore, the use of Synephrine as a supplement for controlling body fats in your body is just the best thing as it’ll ensure you achieve this through all means.
3. Better muscular glucose uptake
The use of Synephrine will promote the uptake of glucose by the body. This happens in two main ways. Excess glucose in the bloodstream fats retention is a probable occurrence.
Use of Synephrine will ensure that the excess glucose in the blood is eliminated and transferred to the skeletal muscles. Here the glucose can be easily converted to muscles.
Secondly, Synephrine will ensure that the transfer of glucose to the skeletal muscles results in energy build up as the sugar will be swiftly broken down. This energy is critical for driving key metabolic processes that will enable the individual to lose excess fats.
4. Aids glycogenesis
The liver is the body organ that is tasked with the breakdown of stored fats in the body. Use of Synephrine influences the liver to induce glycogenesis. This significant process would otherwise occur at a very slow rate. What Synephrine HCL does is to hasten the process of lipolysis.
5. Helps in control diabetes
When the body is slow in burning the excess sugar in the body and converting it to a useful form, the chances of diabetes developing are high. The use of Synephrine can be a solution regarding setting the body’s glucose levels within the allowed limits. When used, the supplement derived from bitter orange fruits encourages the breakdown of the sugars to release energy.
Individuals who have used it have tested lower blood sugar levels, and this is proof of the drug’s capability to controlling diabetes.
6. Improved digestion
Individuals who have supplemented using Synephrine HCL have had minimal cases of indigestion during the period of use. Also, the effectiveness of the drug on this front hasn’t been scientifically backed.
However, the claim has high degree proof given that the bitter orange fruit from which Synephrine is primarily derived from has been used for so long to control stomach upsets.
7. Reduced nervousness before surgery
This use has also not been scientifically proved to be true beyond reasonable doubt. However, individuals who have used Synephrine before a surgical operation have been found to have minimal nervousness. The drug enables the individual to have a calm attitude that is desirable especially before a major operation.
8. Improved moods and energy levels
The use of Synephrine has been found to cause a significant change in the mood and energy levels of individuals. According to a study that was conducted, this benefit of the drug was proved. Mice were subjected to a variety of conditions to establish the effect of using the drug.
This resulted in a behavioral change that affected even their feeding habits. After some time, healthy stress-free mice were put in water and prompted to swim alongside ones that were depressed. The stressed mice were very sluggish during this phase.
They were then put under Synephrine and their activity notably improved. In the same manner, individuals who have used the supplement are highly likely to be in high spirits as compared to ones who haven’t used it. The energy levels of Synephrine supplement users have been found to be highly improved than normal.
9. Control of harmful bacteria
Some people use the drug like an antibiotic, and it has proved to be helpful to some extent. For instance, its use has led to minimizing the levels of bacteria such as E. coli in the body. The effectiveness of the drug on this has however not been fully proven.
11. Minimized inflammation
The supplement is highly effective in minimizing the probability of inflammation on an injured body part. The drugs act by significantly reducing the number of inflammatory cells and cytokines. This is followed by activation of anti-inflammatory molecules in the affected cells.
The presence of inflammatory molecules directly accelerates many allergic diseases such as asthma. The use of Synephrine aids in reducing the concentration of NF-kB that is harmful in its activated state.
The drug is undoubtedly the best replacement for ephedrine as it will address all the areas mentioned above like the banned stimulant. It also does so in a clean manner as its side effects are significantly less lethal as compared to ephedrine which is known to cause high blood pressure even when used in low dosages.
For best results, it is advisable to avoid buying the drug from chemists directly. Instead, one should visit a qualified medical practitioner who will deliver the right advice on how to use the drug safely and achieve what is desired.
Potential Side Effects of Synephrine
The use of Synephrine is also accompanied by side effects just like any other drug. However, the probability of them being pronounced is highly dependent on the dosage that is used.
The effects are also highly likely to be rampant when one does couple the use of Synephrine together with caffeine. The following are some of the Synephrine HCL side effects that are experienced by the users of the supplement:
- High blood pressure
No stimulant is considered to be 100% safe regarding causing high blood pressure. Although Synephrine is deemed to be a safer option than ephedrine in this front, it also carries the potential for causing high blood pressure.
The risk is however minimal. It is advisable to avoid taking the supplement if you’ve had had cases of high blood pressure.
- Heart disease
As it is the case with high blood pressure, Synephrine cannot be considered to be as lethal as ephedrine in causing heart disease. However, theirs is a chance of the condition developing or escalating especially if it is used together with caffeine.
Nonetheless, there’s still an ongoing debate about the possibility of the stimulant to cause or trigger a heart disease, with some studies showing that it doesn’t have any cardiovascular effect if used alone or together with caffeine.
- Irregular heartbeat
Stimulants work by increasing the rate of body metabolic processes. Usually, this is accompanied by an increase in the heartbeat rate as the heart strives to get as much blood as possible to the body organs. The use of Synephrine HCL powder is likely to cause an increase in the heartbeat although this is rarely experienced.
However, using the stimulant together with another drug of the kind such as caffeine is likely to heighten the problem. In such a case, the heartbeat may even become irregular, and this can be fatal as it can lead to death when not handled early enough.
- Fatalities if used in high dosage just before surgery
This drug is used by some people to minimize tension before surgery. This effect is usually achieved, but it is only safe at very low concentrations. When the dosage is high, use of Synephrine HCL before surgery is likely to cause high blood pressure or cardiac arrest.
This might lead to death if the issues develop during an operation. Therefore, it is advisable to avoid Synephrine or any other stimulant before an operation.
In some cases, a doctor may prescribe the drug to be used before the procedure begins. In such a case, it should be done with strict adherence to the medic’s directive lest it develops to a problem during the operation.
The use of Synephrine high dosage is also likely to cause hallucinations, considering that it is a stimulant.
Other side effects
People who use Synephrine supplements experience other side effects. However, the severity of the effects vary from one individual to the other and depend on many things with the dosage used is key. Some of these effects include:
- Formation of blood clots
- Kidney failure has also been reported. However, this occurs specifically to individuals who have had kidney problems.
- Chest pains. This symptom might be confused with physical pain resulting from muscle stress during a workout session.
- This will only happen following an overdose or a combination with another very powerful stimulant.
The above-mentioned side effects should however never limit one on taking the supplement. Research has shown that the probability of any of the symptoms being highly pronounced is very low and will only happen when a large Synephrine dosage is used.
There is limited information regarding the influence of the drug on breastfeeding mothers as well as the expectant ones. It is therefore advisable to stay away from using the drug at such a time as one may not know what will develop after use.
Synephrine Recommended Usage
Synephrine is contained in many bodybuilding supplements in varying amounts depending on the manufacturer’s preference. The most commonly used dosage is about 100mg per day. This is considered to be enough dosage capable of achieving weight loss.
Although most people generally apply the above-mentioned Synephrine dosage, it is usually on the upper limit of what is considered to cause an effect on the user. A dosage of as low as about 30mg is enough especially for beginners.
For individuals who use the supplement together with other kinds of stimulants, the dosage should be kept as low as possible for compatibility purposes. This is because the use of Synephrine together with a stimulant such as caffeine may predispose the user to high blood pressure and increased heartbeat rate. Though, as mentioned earlier, this is a subject that is still on debate.
The recommended amount that even the conditioned users should not exceed is 200mg per day. Anything above this mark is considered to be toxic and will put the individual at risk of experiencing a raft of the fatal side effects associated with stimulants use. It is advisable, to begin with, 10 to 20mg to ensure that Synephrine is seamlessly compatible with your body.
After taking this initial dosage, you should take time to assess the body’s response to the supplement. If all is well, the second dosage of about 20mg can be added after two hours.
The safest dosage interval is taking the drug once every two hours. It is, however, advisable to refrain from taking the drug about four hours before sleep. The supplement usually takes about two hours to become effective in the body.
Therefore, taking Synephrine as you close in on your sleep is likely going to interrupt with your body. You will probably be unable to catch sleep.
Top topics for discussion: Synephrine vs Caffeine
Is a Synephrine/ caffeine combination safe?
When consumed, Synephrine boosts body’s metabolism while caffeine makes one to be more awake. Some supplements contain caffeine and Synephrine as their ingredients to offer the benefits of the two.
Nevertheless, there has been an ongoing debate concerning Synephrine vs Caffeine; the use of Synephrine and caffeine. Some studies show that a combination of the two can ends up forming a drug that is similar to ephedrine, and the side effects associated with this drug are also experienced as a result of the blend.
The health assessments released recently by Finland and Germany indicate that a combination of Synephrine and caffeine is likely to increase the possibly adverse effects of increased blood pressure and heart rate. On that note, some European government agencies have ordered the removal of supplements with a combination of the two supplements from the market as a result of health safety concerns.
On the other hand, some studies, for instance BfR Opinion No. 004/2013 titled “Health Assessment Of Sports And Weight Loss Products Containing Synephrine And Caffeine”, have found that Synephrine doesn’t have any cardiovascular effect if used alone or in combination with caffeine.
Do Synephrine and caffeine offer the same benefits?
Also, there is a section of people who believe that Synephrine and caffeine offer the same benefits. However, it is worth noting that although both are stimulants, their functionalities are different and so are their effects.
Caffeine affects the central nervous system, digestive system and the circulatory system. The results of caffeine use include alertness, wakefulness and mood boost. Its side effects include jitters, headache, anxiety as well as irritability.
On the other hand, Synephrine mostly affects your body’s metabolism, resulting in an increased metabolism, energy expenditure and power.
Therefore, Synephrine and caffeine are two different stimulants with varying effects.
Purchase Synephrine Supplement Online
Are you in need of Synephrine supplement? The good news is that you buy Synephrine online, and on the other hand, unfortunately, there are substandard supplements sold online and you might not easily differentiate them from the genuine ones.
In as such, it is paramount that you buy Synephrine supplement from a trusted, reputable online seller, preferably Phcoker.com.
Here’s the simple steps you’ll follow to buy Synephrine from Phcoker.com:
Go to Phcoker.com website
- Search “Synephrine(5985-28-4)”
- Fill the purchase application form correctly and submit
- In case you are required to fill in a brief short medical questionnaire, do it and submit. Phcoker’s specialist will use the filled out form to establish whether to approve to your order.
- Pay for the order once it is approved.
- Wait for the supplements to be delivered to you (for not more than three days if you are in the U.S.)
You see how easy it is to buy Synephrine online?
However, before you buy the supplement, it is advisable that you consult a health care expert for advice on the correct dose to use and for a determination if the stimulant will be safe for you. The specialist will advise you on the appropriate dose to take and the possibility of developing side effects if you take the supplement.
Conclusion on Synephrine (5985-28-4)
In a nutshell, Synephrine ticks all the boxes of a perfect supplement for use in cutting weight. It has very mild side effects, and this makes it the ideal accompaniment for any athlete who intends to improve their energy levels during a workout session. It has seamlessly replaced the once highly coveted ephedrine and provided an even better alternative for getting one high without the risk of developing high blood pressure.
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- Roman MC, Betz JM, Hildreth J. Determination of synephrine in bitter orange raw materials, extracts, and dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection: single laboratory validation. J Amer Org Anal Chemists Int. 2007;90:68-81
- Mercolini L, Mandrioli R, Trere T. et al. Fast CE analysis of adrenergic amines in different parts of Citrus aurantiumfruit and dietary supplements. J Sep Sci. 2010;32:1-8
- Haaz S, Fontaine KR, Cutter G, Limdi N. et al. Citrus aurantiumand synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: an update. Obesity Rev. 2006;7:79-88
- Higgins, J. P., Tuttle, T. D., and Higgins, C. L. Energy beverages: content and safety. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85(11):1033-1041.
- Kaats, G. R., Miller, H., Preuss, H. G., and Stohs, S. J. A 60day double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;55:358-362.
- Lynch B. Review of the safety of p-synephrine and caffeine. Intertek-Cantox Report, 2013;1-20.
- Health assessment of sports and weight loss products containing synephrine and caffeine BfROpinion No. 004/2013, of 16 November 2012