What is pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq)?

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) also known as methoxatin is a vitamin-like cofactor compound present in many plant foods. PQQ also occurs naturally in human breast milk as well as in the mammalian tissues.

However, it is only found in minute amounts in the diet hence pqq powder bulk production is necessary to obtain the sufficient amounts in the body.

PQQ was initially discovered as a coenzyme in bacteria whose function was similar to that of B-Vitamin in humans, and plays role in promoting the growth of these organisms.

In humans, it is works as non-vitamin growth factor with many health benefits.

Mechanism of Action

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) exhibits numerous health benefits through different mechanisms such as regulation of cellular signaling pathways, getting rid of free radicals and redox activity.

The pqq mechanisms of action include:

•Affects the way genes work

Pyrroloquinoline quinone can affect the way various genes are expressed and especially the genes involved in mitochondria activity. Its antioxidant activity is said to be 100 times that of vitamin C.

PQQ supplementation has been shown to activate the CREB and PGC-1a signaling pathways that are directly involved in mitochondria biogenesis.

Acts as an antioxidant

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) anti-oxidative activity is mainly due to its ability to be reduced to PQQH2 through the reaction with reducing agents such as cysteine, glutathione or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH).

•Inhibits enzymes

Pyrroloquinoline quinone also hinders the enzyme thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), which in turn triggers the Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activities that promotes antioxidant production.

PQQ has also been known to inhibit the development of quinoproteins (damaging proteins) that leads to Parkinson’s disorder.


The main important (PQQ) pyrroloquinoline quinone benefits

There are numerous pyrroloquinoline quinone benefits including:

i. PQQ promotes the mitochondrial function

Mitochondria are organelles that produce energy in the cells in form of ATP through cellular respiration. They are often referred to powerhouses for the cell or energy factories.

Energy production is the key to a healthy being.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to several disorders such as reduced growth, muscle weakness, neurodegenerative disorders like cardiac disease, depression and diabetes among other health conditions.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone enhances the mitochondrial function by stimulating production of new mitochondria cells (mitochondrial biogenesis). This occurs by activation of CAMP responsive element binding protein 1(CREB) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha, pathways that boost mitochondrial biogenesis.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone also increases the transcription factors that function as antioxidants within the mitochondria hence protect us from oxidative stress.

Pqq further triggers enzymes in the mitochondria that increase energy production.

In a rat model, PQQ deficiency in the diet was reported to impair the mitochondrial function.

pyrroloquinoline quinone benefits

ii. Relieves inflammation

Chronic inflammation is at the root of many disorders such as cardiac disease and diabetes. Pyrroloquinoline quinone has antioxidant properties that help it get rid of free radicals thus prevent inflammation and cell damage.

Some research shows that PQQ supplementation results in a remarkable decline in numerous markers of inflammation such as nitric oxide in just three days.

In a study of mice suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, PQQ administered was reported to offer protection against inflammatory degeneration after 45 days.

iii. Improves brain health and function

Pyrroloquinoline quinone has the ability to grow the brain again (neurogenesis) through production of numerous nerve growth factors.

One study concluded that pqq supplement stimulate nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis and neuron cells.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone has been associated with improved memory and learning due to its ability to regenerate the cells of the brain.

In a study consisting of 41 healthy but elderly individuals, PQQ administered at 20 mg/day for 12 weeks was found to hinder the reduction of the brain function, more so in attentiveness and engaged memory.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone may also help in preventing brain injury.

In 2012, a study of rats given pqq for 3 days before a traumatic brain injury found that the supplement was able to protect the brain cells against this injury.

iv. PQQ improves sleep

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) aids in enhancing your sleep quality by reducing the time taken to fall asleep, increases the duration of sleep and improves the overall sleep quality.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone can also potentially lower the amount of stress hormone (cortisol) within individuals and hence improve their sleep.

In a study of 17 adults, PQQ given at 20 mg/day for 8 weeks was found to improve the sleep quality in terms of increased sleep duration and lower sleep latency.

PQQ improves sleep

v. Improves heart health

The ability of pyrroloquinoline quinone to control the levels of cholesterol makes it reduce the risk of heart disease such as stroke.

In a study of 29 adults, supplementation of pqq significantly reduced the bad LDL cholesterol levels.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone also reduces triglycerides levels which lead to enhanced mitochondrial function. In a study with rats, ppq given was found to lower their triglyceride levels.

Pqq supplement may help prevent or reverse atherosclerosis (stroke). Some studies have shown that ppq can lower C-reactive protein and trimethylamine-N-oxide which are key markers of this disorder.

vi. A potential longevity agent

Pyrroloquinoline quinone is regarded a non-vitamin growth factor and hence could help in promoting your growth and also development.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone function in fighting inflammation, preventing oxidative stress and supporting mitochondrial function proves its ability in extending one’s life.

PQQ has also been proven to activate cell signaling pathways which in turn reverse cellular aging.

The synergetic effects derived from these mechanisms enable PQQ to protect you from cellular aging and also enhance longevity.

In an animal model, supplementation with pqq was found to reduce oxidative stress as well as extend the life span of roundworms.

vii. Protection from oxidative stress

PQQ binds to proteins hence inhibits oxidation in the cells.  It is also able to get rid of free radicals in the body.

In an animal study, pqq supplementation was found to prevent oxidative-related neuron cell death.

Another study conducted in vitro reported that PQQ protected isolated liver mitochondria cells from damage after oxidative stress and eliminated superoxide radicals.

A further study with streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic mice, PQQ given at 20 mg/kg bodyweight for 15 days was found to reduce the serum levels of glucose and lipid peroxidation products, and also elevated the activities of antioxidants in the diabetic mouse brain. 

Other pyrroloquinoline quinone uses and benefits include:

Preventing obesity

Improves immune system

Improves fertility

Promotes cognitive functioning and memory

Helps fight fatigue

In the current situation in the world, negative news due to the COVID 19 is coming in every time. Pyrroloquinoline quinone coronavirus fight can be utilized. This exciting supplement will enhance your immunity as well offer sleep aid to relieve you stress.

pyrroloquinoline quinone uses


What are the side effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq)?

When obtaining PQQ from food sources no side effects are expected unless one is allergic to the certain food.

In animal studies with rats, renal disorder has been associated with PQQ supplementation. In one study consisting of rats, PQQ injected at 11-12 mg/kg body weight was reported to cause kidney inflammation.

In another study of rats, PQQ at 20 mg/kg bodyweight was found to cause toxicity to the renal and hepatic tissues.

Rat deaths have also been reported with higher doses of about 500 mg.

In humans, no adverse pyrroloquinoline quinone side effects have been reported with doses of up to 20 mg/day.

However, in rare occurrences, some possible pyrroloquinoline quinone side effects can occur due to taking overdoses. These side effects include headaches, fatigue, drowsiness, hypersensitivity and insomnia.


Dosage of PQQ

Since pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) is not yet fully approved by the Federal Drug Administration for medicinal use, no standard pyrroloquinoline quinone dosage is set, although some studies have found that pyrroloquinoline quinone dosages from 2 mg/day are beneficial. However, most PQQ supplements are in doses of 20 to 40 mg.

Pyrroloquinoline quinone dosage may vary depending on the intended purpose. Some studies show that a dosage of 0.075 to 0.3 mg/kg per day is efficient in enhancing mitochondria function, while a higher dose of about 20 mg per day may be necessary to fight against inflammation.

When taken together with COQ10, doses of 20 mg PQQ and 200 mg COQ10 are advised, although some studies using 20 mg of PQQ and 300 mg COQ10 did not report any adverse side effects.

PQQ supplement are to be taken orally and preferably before meals-on an empty stomach.

You are therefore highly advised to start from lower doses and increase as necessary.

And worth noting is that many studies do not recommend taking a dose beyond 80 mg per day.


What Foods Contain pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq)?

Pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) is found in most plant foods, although usually in very low amounts. The plants obtain PQQ directly from soil and soil bacteria such as methylotrophic, rhizobium, and acetobacter bacteria.

Pqq in human tissues comes partly from diet and partly from enteric bacteria production.

The level of pyrroloquinoline quinine in these food sources varies widely ranging from 0.19 to 61ng/g. However, pqq is more concentrated in the following foods:



Other food sources of PQQ include broccoli sprouts, field mustard, fava beans, apples, eggs, bread, wine and milk.

Due to the low levels of pqq in most foods, it would be difficult to obtain enough amounts to leap the benefits associated with pqq unless we take too large quantities of a certain food. This therefore necessitates one to buy pqq supplement to complement the good diet.


PQQ and COQ10

The coenzyme Q10 (COQ10) often regarded as mitochondria enhancer occurs in human body and also in most foods. It is similar to PQQ; however, pyrroloquinoline quinine and CQ10 work in very distinct ways or employs different mechanisms to improve the mitochondrial functions.

The coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor that works within the mitochondria and plays an important role in cellular respiration and oxygen utilization for energy production. PQQ on the other hand increases the number of mitochondria cells and also improves the mitochondria efficiency.

When taken together, pyrroloquinoline quinine and CQ10, offer synergetic effects in improving the mitochondrial function, protecting us from oxidative stress and regulating cellular signaling pathways.


Buy PQQ Supplement

There are many inevitable benefits of pqq supplement powder and you should consider complimenting your diet with it. PQQ powder for sale is readily available online. However, for best results be extra vigilant when you buy pqq supplement to ensure you get the best quality.

If you consider buying pqq bulk powder ensure you get it from reputable suppliers.



  1. Chowanadisai W., Bauerly K. A., Tchaparian E., Wong A., Cortopassi G. A., Rucker R. B. (2010). Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1α expression. Biol. Chem. 285: 142–152.
  2. Harris CB1, Chowanadisai W, Mishchuk DO, Satre MA, Slupsky CM, Rucker RB. (2013). Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects. J Nutr Biochem.Dec; 24(12):2076-84. Doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.07.008.
  3. Kumazawa T., Sato K., Seno H., Ishii A., and Suzuki O. (1995). Levels of pyrroloquinoline quinone in various foods. J.307: 331–333.
  4. Nunome K., Miyazaki S., Nakano M., Iguchi-Ariga S., Ariga H. (2008). Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents oxidative stress-induced neuronal death probably through changes in oxidative status of DJ-1. Pharm. Bull. 31: 1321–1326.
  5. Paul Hwang & Darryn S. Willoughby(2018). Mechanisms Behind Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Supplementation on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis: Possible Synergistic Effects with Exercise, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 37:8, 738-748, DOI: 1080/07315724.2018.1461146.
  6. Stites T, Storms D, and Bauerly K, et al. (2006). Full text: Pyrroloquinoline quinone modulates mitochondrial quantity and function in mice. J Nutr. Feb; 136(2): 390-6.
  7. Zhang L, Liu J, Cheng C, Yuan Y, Yu B, Shen A, Yan M. (2012).  The neuroprotective effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone on traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. Mar 20; 29(5):851-64.