March 2, 2024

Phcoker is a professional Tirzepatide GMP manufacturer that provide both form of Tirzepatide powder and Tirzepatide finished lyophilized powder in vial.  The regularly manufacturing specification include Tirzepatide 5mg, Tirzepatide 10mg, Tirzepatide 15mg. Larger dosage and contract manufacturing service is available.

Monthly production capacity: >1,000,000 vials

Other Nam:LY3298176,Mounjaro,Zepbound,GTPL11429,P1206


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Molecular Formula:C225H348N48O68
Molecular Weight:4813g/mol
PubChem CID:156588324
CAS Number:2023788-19-2
Synonyms:LY3298176, Mounjaro,Zepbound,GTPL11429,P1206


Tirzepatide peptide is a glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) dual receptor agonist. The drug is currently approved by the FDA under the brand name of Mounjaro for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. According Tirzepatide research result, the current clinical trial results show that the participants in the experiment showed a substantial weight loss. Participants who used the highest dose of 15mg lost an average of 15.7% of their weight, which is a major milestone in the history of weight loss drugs.

What Is Obesity? How To Tell If You Are Obese?

Before to have a detailed review of Tirzepatide, the important information we needto know is obesity. Obesity is a serious epidemic affecting health worldwide. Factors such as genetics and environment can contribute to its development. But the good news is, it’s treatable. So how do we judge whether we are obese?

Generally, health care providers will use your BMI to diagnose obesity. BMI is calculated by dividing weight (kg) by height (m) squared [BMI=weight (kg)/height 2(m)]

  • Overweight: A BMI between 25.0 and 29.9means you are overweight. This is a health issue. Being overweight puts a strain on your body and can lead to other health problems, such as obesity.
  • Obesity: Obesity means that your weight is in an unhealthy state. Your BMI between 30.0 and 39.9means that you are obese. This is when you need to contact your health care provider promptly to understand and treat obesity.
  • Severe obesity: When your BMI is greater than 40.0, you are in the stage of severe obesity, which is very likely to cause you to develop other health problems. When you realize you are severely obese, you need to talk to your health care provider about weight loss management options.[1][4]

What Is Tirzepatide Powder?

Tirzepatide is a weight loss drug injected once a week for weight management. The drug, developed by Eli Lilly and Company, is currently approved by the FDA to treat type 2 diabetes. [2][6]Tirzepatide is currently sold under the brand names Mounjaro and Zepbound. If you are considering to buy Tirzepatide for weight loss management, it is important to find a reliable tirzepatide supplier. It can be a challenge to choose the most suitable tirzepatide supplier from the many peptide manufacturers. As a professional Tirzepatide GMP manufacturer, Phcoker can not only provide high-quality Tirzepatide lyophilized powder in vials, but also raw powder.

As a dual receptor agonist of GLP-1 and GIP, Tirzepatide not only stimulates insulin secretion and release, but also has a certain inhibitory effect on glucagon. Through the dual effects of GLP-1 and GIP, Tirzepatide can effectively suppress appetite, reduce food intake, and prolong the feeling of satiety, thereby promoting weight loss.

The dual effects of Tirzepatide can not only effectively reduce weight, but this innovative method makes full use of the advantages of these two hormones to solve many problems such as metabolism, and also makes it an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes. a promising treatment option.

The History of Tirzepatide Peptide

The History of Tirzepatide Peptide

The above are the key events in the development of Tirzepatide. Currently, Tirzepatide peptide has been proven to be a safe and effective drug for weight loss and type 2 diabetes treatment, and has also shown many benefits on metabolism. When using it, in addition to consulting a professional healthcare provider based on your specific situation and needs, it is also important to find a regular and reliable peptide manufacturer to purchase Tirzepatide powder.

The Structure of Tirzepatide


The Structure Tirzepatide


Tirzepatide Mechanism of Action

If want to how is Tirzepatide help weight management, here let’s have a look of the mechanism of action of Tirzepatide. As a synthetic peptide, Tirzepatide works mainly by targeting two receptor agonists, GLP-1 and GIP.[3][15]

Research studies have shown that Tirzepatide has greater affinity for GIP receptors than for GLP-1 receptors. And compared to a single GLP-1 receptor agonist, the dual receptor agonist effect of Tirzepatide powder has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia to a greater extent and reduce the user’s appetite to a greater extent.

According to signaling reports, Tirzepatide will mimic the action of natural GIP on the GIP handle; however, for GLP-1 receptors, Tirzepatide is more likely to favor the production of cAMP, rather than recruiting β-arrestin, which binds to sugar. , a messenger related to the regulation of glycogen and lipid metabolism.[5][7]

Although the exact mechanism of action of Tirzepatide has not been fully elucidated, current research shows that Tirzepatide’s dual receptor agonist effect on GLP-1 and GIP increases insulin secretion and can effectively treat obesity and type 2 diabetes.


Tirzepatide Mechanism


Why Tirzepatide Is So Popular? Benefits Of Tirzepatide

As a biological peptide drug, Tirzepatide is popular in the market because of the benefits it brings to people.[8][11] It is a well-known drug for treating diabetes and an effective weight loss drug. Here are the primary 10 benefits of Tirzepatide:

  • Promote weight loss. Studies have shown that Tirzepatide activates human GIP and GLP-1 receptors. GIP and GLP-1 receptors are two receptors crucial to regulating appetite in the human brain. Tirzepatide has been shown to reduce food intake, suppress appetite and regulate fat utilization. Numerous clinical studies have shown that patients taking tirzepatidelost 15.7% (34.4 pounds or 15.6 kilograms) of body weight, making it a potential option for those seeking effective weight management.
  • Increases satiety. Tirzepatide slows the passage of food through the body, reduces the desire to eat, and enhances the body’s feeling of fullness, making it easier to stick to a healthy diet and maintain weight loss.
  • Control and stabilize blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic progressive disease and the most common form of diabetes. This disease causes the body’s own inability to release insulin, resulting in high levels of glucose in the blood. Tirzepatide can regulate the release and use of insulin by regulating GLP-1 and GIP, thereby keeping glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at a healthy level.
  • Treat type 2 diabetes. Tirzepatide peptide has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and can effectively help patients control blood sugar. Regulates blood sugar levels mainly by increasing the secretion of insulin.
  • Treat obesity-related diseases. Obesity can lead to physical diseases such as high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and even heart disease. Tirzepatide can effectively reduce the occurrence and development of these diseases while protecting the cardiovascular system by promoting weight loss.
  • Convenient. Unlike other drugs that must be taken every day, Tirzepatide only needs to be injected once a week, which greatly helps patients save a lot of time in their daily lives and makes taking the drug more convenient.
  • Flexible dosing.Tirzepatide can be administered flexibly. It can be used alone or in combination with other diabetes medications. This flexible dosing method allows patients to modify the dosage according to their needs, thereby achieving better therapeutic effects.
  • Treat obese with type 1 diabetes. The latest research shows that Tirzepatide may help obese type 1 diabetes also. Researchers reported that Tirzepatide led to an average weight loss of 18.5% (>46 pounds) in patients with type 1 diabetes over one year and improved glycemic control.

In addition, researchers continue to study the potential benefits of Tirzepatide powder. Potential benefits of Tirzepatide are as follows:

Protect heart

Reduce inflammation

Treat alcohol addiction

These studies are ongoing to explore Tirzepatide’s broader benefits beyond obesity and type 2 diabetes. The powerful effects shown by Tirzepatide peptide have made it widely popular in the market. If you are interested in Tirzepatide powder, make sure to purchase it from a reliable peptide manufacturer such as Phcoker.com.

Tirzepatide Emerges as New Star in Kidney Protection in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment

Chronic kidney disease is a common complication of type 2 diabetes and can lead to kidney failure in severe cases. Results of a meta-study show that any dose of Tirzepatide reduces proteinuria levels in patients with type 2 diabetes without affecting kidney function.

The experiment will conduct an observational study on patients with type 2 diabetes who received Tirzepatide and a control group who received placebo and Semaglutide. It mainly measured the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and glomerular filtration rate between the Tirzepatide experimental group and the control group. (eGFR) for comparison. The results of the study showed that compared with the control group, the UACR in the Tirzepatide group was reduced by approximately 27%, but had no significant effect on eGFR levels. This shows that Tirzepatide has more obvious benefits for kidney protection.

All in all, Tirzepatide’s dual agonistic effect on GIP and GLP-1 can not only promote weight loss and control blood sugar, but also protect the kidneys, which is very important for the treatment and care of type 2 diabetes. In order to more fully understand and confirm the protective effect of Tirzepatide on the kidneys, a large number of clinical trials are still needed. If you are a researcher or interested in this, make sure to purchase from a specialty pharmaceutical company or peptide powder manufacturer (such as Phcoker).

Tirzepatide Vs Semaglutide

Tirzepatide and Semaglutide are two drugs currently on the market for weight management and treatment of type 2 diabetes. [9]It is becoming more and more common to use drugs to lose weight, so what are the similarities and differences between Tirzepatide and Semaglutide? Here let’s have a detailed view.

Tirzepatide and Semaglutide both belong to the GLP-1 series of weight loss drugs and have a huge effect on weight loss and the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes. And the side effects caused by using these two drugs are generally the same. The main side effect is adverse intestinal reactions.

Is Tirzepatide better than Semaglutide?

Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor agonist. When eating, it promotes the release of GLP-1 hormone and produces insulin. At the same time, it can also send satiety signals to the brain, thereby reducing food intake and achieving weight loss.

Tirzepatide is an agonist of two receptors: glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which means that Tirzepatide may also provide additional effects on weight loss and achieve better results. The amount of weight loss effect.

Can they all promote weight loss?

As the study continued, researchers found that Tirzepatide led to greater weight loss than Semaglutide. The research on Tirzepatide and Semaglutide have shown significant weight loss with weekly doses of 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg of Tirzepatide. Although Tirzepatide cost is more expensive than Semaglutide, it is more effective and better value.

Of note, the doses of Tirzepatide and Semaglutide used in these studies were different. The dosage of Tirzepatide in these experiments was higher, which may have had a certain impact on the results of the experiments. In addition, these studies only compared patients with type 2 diabetes, and the effects of weight loss on obese patients without type 2 diabetes have not been clearly compared.

Polypeptide Weight Loss Drug Vs Traditional Weight Loss Drug

1,Famous polypeptide weight loss drug

  • Tirzepatide:is a synthetic derivative of polypeptide that combines the functions of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). May reduce appetite and promote weight loss by slowing gastric emptying and promoting a feeling of fullness.
  • Semaglutide:is a synthetic derivative of polypeptide based on the naturally occurring GLP-1 peptide. It promotes weight loss by suppressing appetite, prolonging the time it takes food to pass through the stomach, causing a feeling of fullness, and reducing calorie intake.
  • Retatrutide:is a newly launched polypeptide weight loss product. It can suppress appetite, reduce calorie intake, thereby preventing fat accumulation and increasing energy expenditure, so as to achieve the purpose of weight loss.

2,Famous traditional weight loss drug

  • Sibutramine:Introduced in 1997, it is licensed worldwide for daily use in doses of 10 to 15 mg. Sibutramin has been shown to promote modest weight loss, but concerns about adverse cardiovascular effects have limited its market penetration.
  • Lorcaserin:reduces appetite by activating a type of serotonin receptor called the 5-HT 2C receptor in an area of the brain called the hypothalamus, which controls appetite. It was removed from the U.S. market in 2020 because of an  increased risk of cancer detected in users.
  • Rimonabant:Rimonabant is a selective cannabinoid 1 receptor blocker that reduces appetite, thereby promoting weight loss. The product was pulled because of reports of serious psychiatric side effects, including anxiety and depression.

3,Comparing the two, who is better?

Of course, polypeptide weight loss drugs are better.[10][14]

In terms of efficacy, some traditional weight loss products have little effect on weight loss (like Rimonabant), and some stop using them will lead to weight rebound (like Sibutramine). The weight loss effect of polypeptide weight loss products is remarkable, and its weight loss effect can usually reach 10%-20%, and there will be basically no weight rebound after stopping use.

In terms of side effects, the side effects of traditional weight loss products are relatively serious, which can potentially lead to side effects such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological damage. Peptide weight loss products, as biological drugs, have relatively small side effects. Different from traditional weight loss products, this kind of product will not cause the above-mentioned diseases, and it can even treat the above-mentioned diseases synergistically, which can be said to kill two birds with one stone.

In terms of the way of administration, most of the traditional weight-loss drugs are taken orally. Before the final digestion and absorption, the drug consumes a lot, resulting in poor final effect, and most of them need to be taken every day, which is three-point poisonous to people. It is not very convenient for daily grocery. Peptide weight loss drugs can effectively reduce consumption and achieve better results through injection. At the same time, most peptide weight-loss drugs are registered once a week, which can greatly provide convenience for users.

Therefore, multiple comparisons show that polypeptide weight loss products are better.

How To Reconstitute Tirzepatide Powder?

Due to the surge in demand for Tirzepatide in the market, the production and supply pressure of Tirzepatide continues to increase. Therefore many people turn to buy Tirzepatide powder online for restructuring. It is important to buy Tirzepatide powder from the regular peptide manufacturers. Many peptide companies, scientific research institutions etc. provide tirzepatide powder, to ensure the quality, the tirzepatide supplier must have a strict production environment, professional technology and equipment, and be able to provide corresponding professional test reports such as Coa, HPLC etc. Phcoker is one of the top Tirzepatide powder manufacturers in the market. Here let’s have a look at the reconstitute process of Tirzepatide powder step by step.

Step 1: Restructure the environment

When you reconstruct Tirzepatide, you need to find a clean and well-lit spaceto ensure that Tirzepatide does not become contaminated.

Step 2: Preparation before refactoring

You need to prepare things you may need for reconstitution, such as Tirzepatide powder, bacteriostatic water, syringes, vial adapters, etc.

Step 3: Wash your hands

Before refactoring, you need to wash your hands thoroughly with soap or hand sanitizer and running water to avoid the introduction of bacteria or other contaminants.

Step 4: Reconstitute Tirzepatide Powder

Please follow the steps below to carry out the reconstitution process of Tirzepatide powder:

  • Check whether the Tirzepatide vial is damaged or contaminated. Do not use it if there is any discoloration of the powder as mentioned above.
  • Remove the protective cover of the vial and disinfect it with alcohol cotton
  • Inject bacteriostatic water
  • Gently rotate the vial to fully blend the Tirzepatide powder and bacteriostaticwater
  • Check whether there are particles or agglomerates in the solution to ensure complete dissolution

Step 5: Take out the solution

Invert the vial and draw out the required dose of Tirzepatide solution. And check whether there are air bubbles in the syringe. If there are air bubbles, tap the syringe to remove the air bubbles.

Step 6: Administration

Administer the Tirzepatide solution in the syringe at the correct injection site as directed.

You can find many instructional videos for homemade injections on social platforms such as TikTok and YouTube. The above operation methods are for reference only. The Tirzepatide lyophilized powder used comes from the professional peptide manufacturer Phcoker.com.

Tirzepatide Powder Side Effects And Safety

Tirzepatide powder has been approved by relevant regulatory agencies for weight management, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (OMA), etc. [12][13]The approval of these agencies indicates that Tirzepatide has undergone rigorous testing and evaluation to determine Its safety, quality and effectiveness.

As a prescription drug, Tirzepatide is in great demand. When purchasing, please make sure your purchasing channel is reliable and trustworthy. Phcoker.com is a factory specializing in the production of Tirzepatide, which may be a good choice if you need it. In addition, you should be aware of some possible side effects of using Tirzepatide before purchasing:

The most common side effects of Tirzepatide are gastrointestinal adverse reactions, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc. These symptoms are usually not serious and will disappear over time. If serious adverse reactions occur after use, please stop taking the drug promptly and seek help from a healthcare provider.

How To Store Tirzepatide Peptide?

 Normal temperature (not higher than 30℃)

Tirzepatide can be stored at room temperature for up to 21 days. Please ensure that the temperature does not exceed 30°C and avoid exposure to light.

Refrigerated (2℃-8℃)

It should be noted that the temperature of Tirzepatide needs to be kept between 2-8°C when refrigerated. It cannot be frozen and stored, as this will decompose the medicinal properties of Tirzepatide.

Please take good care of your Tirzepatide so that it can achieve the desired results.

Tirzepatide For SaleWhere can I Buy Tirzepatide Powder?

Tirzepatide’s role as a dual receptor agonist of GLP-1 and GIP brings a potential breakthrough in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The demand for Tirzepatide powder is also increasing in the market. But because the drug is only covered for people with type 2 diabetes, its price prevents some patients who need it to lose weight from getting Tirzepatide.

The good news is that Tirzepatide powder is now available for purchase online. If you want to buy Tirzepatide powder online, Phcoker is a good choice for you. Phcoker has independent factories and laboratories to produce and develop Tirzepatide. Currently it is mainly supplied in two forms: raw powder and lyophilized powder. Whether you buy in bulk or in bulk, you’ll get a great price at Phcoker.


Tirzepatide is a new FDA-approved drug for weight management in type 2 diabetes. Due to its dual receptor agonist properties, which also provide weight loss benefits, Tirzepatide may also be used off-label to treat obesity. Tirzepatide exerts its effects by acting on GIP and GLP-1 receptors. The dual effects of GLP-1 and GIP can attack the secretion and release of insulin while inhibiting glucagon. The synergistic effect of the two can effectively improve blood sugar management and promote weight loss.

As a professional Tirzepatide peptide powder supplier, Phcoker.com is not only supply the peptide Tirzepatide in powder form but provide the customized standard easy use vial form. We not only regularly supply Tirzepatide 5mg, 10mg and 15mg, but also support customized production, Can meet your requirements for different product specifications, packaging, etc.


Where to buy

Would you like to buy the best Tirzepatide peptide from the best Tirzepatide suppliers in the market? You have come at the right place!

Phcoker as a peptide factory, is the best place where you can buy Tirzepatide in compeptitive price, from small to bulk quantity. Click and make a contact, you will get all the details. Before buy Tirzepatide, you may curious:

What Are The Advantages If Buy Tirzepatide From Phcoker?

  • 【Competitive Factory Price】

Factory direct sales, No middlemen make a difference.

  • 【Customization Service】

Product specifications can be customized to create your own peptide brand.

  • 【Quality Guarantee】

Professional lab reports along with shipment.

  • 【Fast Shipping】

Professional logistics customization solutions, on-time delivery.

  • 【Easy Payment】

Payment methods that are diverse.

  • 【365/24/7 Service】

High quality pre-sales and after-sales service, followed by product and order details consultation.

How To Get The Quick Price Of Tirzepatide Online?

  • Visit professional Tirzepatide supplier Phcoker.com, choose the Tirzepatide you want to buy.
  • Leave your contact and message on Phcoker.com website, then submit to Phcoker.com.
  • The customer service will reply you in 12 hours once received your message, then talk in details about buy Tirzepatide.

Does Phcoker Support The Free Sample Of Tirzepatide Powder?

It depends, different products with different policy, please check it with our customer service. Most of products can be accepted for sample.

Can I Appoint The Tirzepatide Colour When Buy Tirzepatide?

YES! Phcoker as peptide manufacturer, provide colour customization of Tirzepatide, easy to help you to build your Tirzepatide peptide brand.

Can I Appoint The Products Standard When Buy Tirzepatide From Phcoker.com?

YES! As one of the best Tirzepatide manufacturer, Phcoker not only provide the standard specification of Tirzepatide in 5mg, 10mg, but support standard customization. Provide the best support to build your own Tirzepatide brand.

Can I Buy Tirzepatide In Pure Powder Form From Phcoker.com?

YES! Tirzepatide powder is the base that use for Tirzepatide lyophilized powder manufacture. Phcoker provide Tirzepatide in both of pure powder form and semi-finished vial form.

Can I Buy Discount Tirzepatide Powder From Phcoker.com?

YES! Our factory produce high quality Tirzepatide powder in term and keep Tirzepatide powder in stock. You can buy high quality Tirzepatide powder in bulk. During promotion sale, you can buy Tirzepatide peptide by lower price. You can keep touch with our customer manager and they will update the latest bulk Tirzepatide price for you in time.



What is Tirzepatide?

Tirzepatide is a dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist with great therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes and obesity. It is one of the most popular GLP-1 series drugs currently on the market.

Can Tirzepatide lyophilized powder be mixed with other medications?

Can’t. Tirzepatide cannot be mixed with any other drugs and should be administered separately to avoid conflicting properties.

What are the ingredients of Mounjaro?

The active pharmaceutical ingredient of Mounjaro is Tirzepatide powder.

What should I do if I miss a dose of Tirzepatide?

If you miss a dose of Tirzepatide, you need to take the missed dose as soon as you remember (this is provided that this is within 4 days of the missed dose). If more than four days have passed since your last dose, you should skip the missed dose and continue on your regular dosing schedule. You cannot inject 2 times within 3 days! ! !

How should the reconstructed Tirzepatide be stored?

Reconstituted Tirzepatide should be refrigerated at 2-8°C (36-46°F) and preferably used within 8 hours to ensure efficacy.

When will Tirzepatide peptide be available/approved?

Tirzepatide will be approved for marketing in the United States in May 2022; approved for marketing in the European Union in September 2022; and will be approved for medical use in Canada and Australia in November and December 2022.

How should Tirzepatide be used correctly?

Tirzepatide should be administered as a weekly injection according to the instructions for use, with or without food. Injection sites should be rotated between the thigh, abdomen, and upper arm.

What is compounded Tirzepatide?

Compunded Tirzepatide is a single peptide that targets human GIP and GLP-1 (two naturally occurring incretin hormones) receptors. By activating these receptors, the compound Tirzepatide can help obese patients achieve significant weight loss and improve their overall health.

What is the dosage of Tirzepatide?

According to research, the dosage of Tirzepatide for weight loss should start at 2.5mg. Thereafter, increase the dose by 2.5 mg every four weeks until the target doses of 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg are reached.

This dosage is for reference only, please consult your healthcare provider for specific dosage.

Is Tirzepatide a fast track to weight loss?

Tirzepatide is nearing FDA approval to treat obesity in adults. Obesity drugs appear to be improving. A new FDA-approved drug is being “fast tracked” and has been shown to help users lose more than a fifth of their body weight.


Referenced Citations

[1]”Australian prescription medicine decision summaries: Mounjaro“. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Archived from the original on 5 February 2023. Retrieved 28 February 2023.

[2]”Mounjaro tirzepatide 15 mg/0.5 mL solution for injection pre-filled pen (379334)“. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Archived from the original on 3 January 2023. Retrieved 28 February 2023.

[3]”Public Summary: Mounjaro tirzepatide 15 mg/0.5 mL solution for injection pre-filled pen“. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Retrieved 28 February 2023

[4]”Notice: Multiple Additions to the Prescription Drug List (PDL) [2023-03-08]“. Health Canada. 8 March 2023. Archived from the original on 22 March 2023. Retrieved 21 March 2023.

[5] “Summary Basis of Decision – Mounjaro“. Health Canada. 17 March 2023. Archived from the original on 25 April 2023. Retrieved 24 April 2023.

[6]Thomas MK, Nikooienejad A, Bray R, Cui X, Wilson J, Duffin K, et al. (January 2021). “Dual GIP and GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Tirzepatide Improves Beta-cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes“. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 106 (2): 388–396. doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa863. PMC 7823251. PMID 33236115

[7] “FDA Approves Novel, Dual-Targeted Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes“. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 13 May 2022. Archived from the original on 13 May 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

[8]New Drug Therapy Approvals 2022 (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Report). January 2024. Archived from the original on 14 January 2024. Retrieved 14 January 2024. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

[9]Min T, Bain SC (January 2021). “The Role of Tirzepatide, Dual GIP and GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: The SURPASS Clinical Trials“. Diabetes Therapy. 12 (1): 143–157. doi:10.1007/s13300-020-00981-0. PMC 7843845. PMID 33325008

[10]Kolata G (8 November 2023). “F.D.A. Approves New Obesity Drug Tirzepatide That Will Compete With Wegovy“. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 November 2023. Retrieved 9 November 2023.

[11]Frias JP, Nauck MA, Van J, Benson C, Bray R, Cui X, et al. (June 2020). “Efficacy and tolerability of tirzepatide, a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist in patients with type 2 diabetes: A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate different dos“. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 22 (6): 938–946. doi:10.1111/dom.13979. PMC 7318331. PMID 31984598

[12]Dahl D, Onishi Y, Norwood P, Huh R, Bray R, Patel H, et al. (February 2022). “Effect of Subcutaneous Tirzepatide vs Placebo Added to Titrated Insulin Glargine on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The SURPASS-5 Randomized Clinical Trial“. JAMA. 327 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.0078. PMC 8826179. PMID 35133415

[13]Frias JP, Nauck MA, Van J, Kutner ME, Cui X, Benson C, et al. (November 2018). “Efficacy and safety of LY3298176, a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, placebo-controlled and active comparator-controlled phase 2 trial“. The Lancet. 392 (10160): 2180–2193. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32260-8. PMID 30293770

[14]Willard FS, Douros JD, Gabe MB, Showalter AD, Wainscott DB, Suter TM, et al. (September 2020). “Tirzepatide is an imbalanced and biased dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist“. JCI Insight. 5 (17). doi:10.1172/jci.insight.140532. PMC 7526454. PMID 32730231

[15] Østergaard S, Paulsson JF, Kofoed J, Zosel F, Olsen J, Jeppesen CB, et al. (October 2021). “The effect of fatty diacid acylation of human PYY3-36 on Y2 receptor potency and half-life in minipigs“. Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 21179. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1121179O. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-00654-3. PMC 8551270. PMID 34707178.


Author of this article:

Dr. Jean Zeng graduated from king’s college london Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine.


Scientific Journal paper Author:


  1. Giovanni Pacini

Independent Researcher, Padova, Italy

  1. Kazuhiko Kido

PharmD, BCCP, BCPS, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, West Virginia University School of Pharmacy

  1. Jessica W. Skelley

PharmD, BCACP, Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice, McWhorter School of Pharmacy, Samford University, Birmingham, AL

  1. Qi Liu

Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei, PR China

  1. Stephen J. Nicholls MBBS, PhD

Victorian Heart Institute, Monash University, VIC, Melbourne, Australia


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