Retatrutide

March 2, 2024

Phcoker is a professional GMP manufacturer of Retatrutide that provide both form of Retatrutide powder and Retatrutide finished lyophilized powder in vial.  The regularly manufacturing specification include Retatrutide 5mg, Retatrutide 10mg, Retatrutide 15mg. Larger dosage and contract manufacturing service is available.

Monthly production capacity: >1,000,000 vials


Other Name:LY-3437943

 

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Properties


Sequence:YA1QGTFTSDYSIL2LDKK4AQA1AFIEYLLEGGPSSGAPPPS3
Molecular Formula:C223H343F3N46O70
Molecular Weight:4845.444g/mol
PubChem CID:474492335
CAS Number:2381089-83-2
Synonyms:LY3437943

Description


Retatrutide peptide is a weight loss drug developed by Eli Lilly and Company in the United States for the treatment of obesity. It is a triple hormone receptor agonist of GLP-1, GIP and glucagon receptors. Its “Triple G” effect makes its weight loss results more effective than other competitors. In trials, it showed incredible weight loss results, helping patients lose 24% of their body weight in 48 weeks. These are the highest results ever seen with an anti-obesity drug. This is encouraging news for many people who have effectively given up trying to lose weight.

What Is Retatrutide Powder?

Obesity is a treatable, chronic disease whose biological basis is complex. Researchers are currently in the field of rapidly expanding treatments to provide potentially highly effective treatment options for obese patients.

Recently, Retatrutide powder developed by Eli Lilly has received widespread attention from the market. This injectable drug is also known as GGG tri-agonist, GLP-1/GIP/glucagon tri-agonist, or LY3437943.[1][5]

Retatrutide belongs to the GLP-1 family along with weight loss drugs such as Semaglutide and Tirzepatide. However, there are differences between these three products. Semaglutide targets only a hunger-controlling hormone called GLP-1, while Tirzepatide targets both GLP-1 and GIP. Retatrutide takes weight loss to the next level by targeting three hunger-regulating hormones: GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptors.

Researchers who specialize in weight loss peptides has been great interest in Retatrutide. To do more in-depth research, they purchased Retatrutide powder from the retatrutide powder manufacturers online, mainly focusing on the effects, benefits, and comparison of Retatrutide with Semaglutide and Tirzepatide. As a more advanced weight loss peptide, Retatrutide is undoubtedly more expensive than Semaglutide and Tirzepatide. Although it will be cheaper to buy Retatrutide online, it is important to choose a reliable supplier.

Structure of Retatrutide

Structure Retatrutide

How Does Retatrutide Work?

What are receptor agonists?

Receptors are protein entities that decorate the outside of our cells and are conduits for signals from outside the cell. After binding, these substances send messages to our specific cells, stimulating the relevant organs to respond.[2][10]

An agonist is a compound, either a drug or a chemical, that binds to a cell receptor and produces a specific response. It can be either naturally occurring or synthetic. The most typical examples of natural agonists are hormones and neurotransmitters.

Retatrutide’s mechanism of action:

Different receptor agonists play different roles in our bodies, depending on the cell receptor they bind to. As mentioned previously, Retatrutide stimulates glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP receptor agonists. Understanding agonists is the first step in understanding how Retartrutide works. Here’s what each does in our bodies and why they help with weight loss:

GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1):

The intestinal peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is obtained by our bodies from the food we eat. This hormone has many uses, but its main role is to control food intake and hunger. When we eat a meal or snack, blood sugar rises, which prompts the release of GLP-1, which prompts the pancreas to secrete insulin.

Insulin is an important hormone produced by our bodies and is key in releasing the glucose we take in from our diet into our cells. Cells rely on glucose as their main energy source, which highlights the important role of insulin. Lack of enough insulin prevents glucose from entering cells, which not only blocks nutrient absorption but also causes blood sugar to rise, leading to weight gain.

GLP-1 promotes insulin secretion from the pancreas while reducing glucose release from the liver. In addition to regulating blood sugar, GLP-1 also intentionally reduces gastric emptying, thereby prolonging digestion. This means you’ll feel full faster after a meal. Additionally, GLP-1 affects the brain’s hunger center, which can lead to a decrease in appetite. These two parts of GLP-1 interact to quell hunger. This effect is similar to appetite suppressants such as phentermine, which are commonly used for weight loss.[2][4][6]

GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide):

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) belongs to the incretin hormone family, like GLP-1. Therefore, these two peptide hormones behave in very similar ways. This hormone is produced in the small intestine after a meal and resides on pancreatic beta cells, effectively initiating the release of insulin. This feature helps control blood sugar after meals. However, the GIP’s residence time in our system is very short, about 7 minutes. GIP agonist drugs like Mounjaro work by maintaining GIP levels in the blood to prolong its presence. This hormone causes the stomach to slowly empty while reducing appetite.This is why the stomach is one of the best places to inject Tirzepatide for weight loss.

Glucagon receptor:

Glucagon is another vital hormone that plays an important role in regulating blood sugar levels. It comes from the pancreas, similar to GLP-1 and GIP, but it comes from a specific type of cell called alpha cells. Glucagon works in the exact opposite way to the above hormones. When blood sugar levels drop due to factors such as fasting or sleep, glucagon begins converting glycogen (retained sugar) into glucose. This provides our bodies with easily available fuel. Although insulin and glucagon perform different tasks, they work together to maintain optimal blood sugar levels. Insulin directs sugar into glycogen, while glucagon directs sugar into glycogen.

How does glucagon help with weight loss?

Our system stores excess glucose from dietary intake as fat and glycogen. When we don’t consume carbohydrates (such as during sleep, a low-calorie diet, or intermittent fasting), glucagon begins working to control glucose production. Once glycogen stores are depleted, glucagon switches to breaking down fat stores, converting them into energy.[7][11][12]

What Are The Core Registration Studies For Retatrutide?

Since Retatrutide was launched, it has been sought after by many weight loss people and scientific researchers. People even buy Retatrutide to conduct more in-depth research to better understand the amazing effects of Retatrutide. The primary studies for retatrutide are:

  • TRIUMPH-1: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to study efficacy and safety in obese or overweight participants without type 2 diabetes, including those with OSA and OA
  • TRIUMPH-2: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to study efficacy and safety in obese or overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, including those with OSA
  • TRIUMPH-3: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to investigate class II (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m 2 and < 40 kg/m 2 ) or class III (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m 2 ) participants Efficacy and Safetym 2) Obesity and Established Cardiovascular Disease
  • TRIUMPH-4: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to study efficacy and safety in obese or overweight OA participants

What Are The Clinical Results Of Retatrutide?

Phase II trial

The latest results from the phase II trial (NCT04881760) showed that after 48 weeks, the percentage change in body weight was -8.7%, -17.1%, – 22.8% and -24.2%. Additionally, the study found that 60% of participants lost more than 15% of their body weight. From a safety perspective, the most common side effects are of a gastrointestinal nature. Therefore, the safety profile of retarglutide is the same as that of other incretin-based treatments.[8][9][15]

Phase III trial

A Phase III trial (TRIUMPH-3; NCT05882045) began in May to evaluate the effects of retarglutide in patients with established cardiovascular disease and those with severe obesity. The trial is expected to end in November 2025.

What Are The Benefits Of Retatrutide?

Semaglutide, Tirzepatide and Retatrutide, as the three giants in the weight loss world, are deeply loved by people and are often compared together. So what are the differences and similarities among them? Why Retatrutide is more expensive than Semaglutide and Tirzepatide?

Retatrutide vs Tirzepatide vs Semaglutide

Research on retatrutide is still ongoing. However, current clinical trials show that Retatrutide promotes weight loss better than Semaglutide and Tirzepatide. Here are some clinical trial data for reference:

Novo Nordisk’s Semaglutide was found to result in an average weight loss of about 15%, or about 34 pounds, after 68 weeks.

Another weight loss drug from Eli Lilly and Company, Tirzepatide, was shown to reduce body weight by an average of 22.5% after 72 weeks.

After 48 weeks, the experimental drug Retartutide helped people lose an average of 24 percent, the equivalent of 58 pounds. However, the actual effectiveness of Retatrutide may be better because it is limited to time. Phase 3 trials will demonstrate its full potential and long-term impact, making it easier for people to believe in it

Since these drugs have not been directly compared in head-to-head clinical trials, it is safe to say that these comparisons will not be direct comparisons. Retatrutide powder is the active ingredient of retatrutide injection, which can help with weight loss and treat type 2 diabetes. Nonetheless, Retatrutide may be faster and more effective than Tirzepatide and Semaglutide.

Retatrutide eliminates fat in the liver

With the development of living standards and technology, obesity has become a serious public health problem, and it can also lead to other diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. According to research, more than 33 million people in the United States have type 2 diabetes. Among them, 5%-7% of people suffer from clinically significant liver disease.[13][14]

Hepatologists at Virginia Commonwealth University say that more than 85 percent of obese participants with fatty liver disease in clinical trials of the experimental drug Retatrutide had their liver fat reduced to the point where they were no longer diagnosed as fatty liver disease.

Retatrutide targets and activates GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon receptors, which are closely related to controlling hunger and satiety. They can help people feel fuller longer after eating. Regulates blood sugar levels, thereby aiding weight loss.

It is worth noting in the experiment that by the 48th week of the experiment, an astonishing 93% of the patients who took the higher dose had reduced their liver fat to less than 5%. The experimental results suggest that retatrutide may become an extremely effective treatment for high-risk patients, preventing the progression of liver disease and potentially reversing the disease. The significance of this study with retatrutide is that patients can use this drug to eliminate fat in the early stages of the disease, thereby avoiding it causing substantial damage to the liver, and also reduce long-term cardiac, metabolic, renal and hepatic damage. damage.

After check the review of Retatrutide,Tirzepatide and Semaglutide, Retatrutide showed superior weight loss effects. But individual or researchers seeking retatrutide for weight management purpose found that retatrutide price is much expensive than semaglutide and tirzepatide, although buy retatrutide from some peptide manufacturers online. So individual seeking long-term weight management prefer to buy tirzepatide and semaglutide. Especially buy online, because the cheaper price and fast shipping, easy order process.

What Are The Side Effects Of Retatrutide?

Retatrutide peptide is a synthetic peptide, primarily available in the form of raw powder and finished vials. Supplier Phcoker Despite its high efficacy, Retatrutide has shown strong weight loss benefits, but its potential side effects must also be considered . Retatrutide also carries some risks of adverse reactions.

As with other GLP-1 weight loss drugs, the most common side effect of retatrutide is gastrointestinal discomfort, including:

  • constipate
  • nausea
  • diarrhea
  • Vomit

In some cases, due to personal constitution, users may experience headaches as a result of its side effects, and if the headaches worsen, they may need painkillers to relieve them.

If you lose weight quickly (more than 10 pounds per month) while taking Retatrutide, you may be at risk of developing gallstones.

Retatrutide may also affect thyroid function, causing changes in thyroid hormones.

In addition, an increased risk of hypoglycemia may be associated with retatrutide, particularly in people with diabetes. It is very necessary to pay close attention to blood sugar at this time.

When using Retatrutide, patients should be aware of these potential side effects and promptly inform their healthcare professional.

Is Retatrutide Powder Available?

Retatrutide is currently in Phase III clinical trials, awaiting approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and this trial is expected to continue until 2025. Retatrutide, as a triple receptor agonist, shows a more powerful weight loss effect than Tirzepatide and Semaglutide, making many obese patients eager to try it.

After seeing the results of the Phase II trial of Retatrutide, many peptide manufacturers appeared on the market trying to produce Retatrutide powder. Now there are Retatrutide powder for sale online. Relevant researchers may have doubts about the quality of Retatrutide suppliers. If you want to test the quality of Retatrutide powder, you can first buy the cheaper Retatrutide lyophilized powder for testing. Phocker.com can supply you with high quality Retatrutide raw powder and lyophilized powder in vials form.

Retatrutide ManufacturerWhere To Buy Retatrutide Peptide?

Retatrutide is a new weight loss product developed by Eli Lilly and Company. A mid-stage clinical trial shows that Retatrutide can help obese patients lose an average of 24% of their weight. A larger phase III clinical trial confirmed the powerful weight loss effect of Retatrutide, and it may surpass Tirzepatide to become a better-selling weight loss product.

Phcoker is one of the suppliers and manufacturers of Retatrutide. We regularly supply Retatrutide in two forms: original powder and lyophilized powder in vials. The regular specifications of vials are 5mg and 10mg. We also support contract customization and production to meet your different needs. Feel free to contact us anytime.

 

Manufacturers/Factory


Retatrutide, as a triple receptor agonist, shows a powerful weight loss effect, which is very beneficial for obese patients who have no obvious effect on Tirzepatide and Semaglutide.

Despite this, research on Retatrutide still has a long way to go. For researchers looking for high-quality Retatrutide powder, Phcoker.com is the right place for you. As a reputable peptide manufacturer, Phcoker not only provides Retatrutide raw powder, but also finished vias for research.

 

Where to buy


Many people who want to use Retatrutide cannot afford it, while others may not be fat enough to get a prescription. Both of these issues are likely to lead to huge demand for over-the-counter (OTC) Retatrutide alternatives that are easier to obtain and less expensive to use. Where to buy affordable Retatrutide powder. Phcoker.com will one of the supplier you don’t want to miss.

What Are The Advantages If Buy Retatrutide From Phcoker.com?

  • 【Competitive Factory Price】

Factory direct sales, No middlemen make a difference.

  • 【Customization Service】

Product specifications can be customized to create your own peptide brand.

  • 【Quality Guarantee】

Professional lab reports along with shipment.

  • 【Fast Shipping】

Professional logistics customization solutions, on-time delivery.

  • 【Easy Payment】

Payment methods that are diverse.

  • 【365/24/7 Service】

High quality pre-sales and after-sales service, followed by product and order details consultation.

How To Get The Quick Price Of Retatrutide Online?

Visit professional Retatrutide supplier Phcoker, choose the Retatrutide you want to buy.

Leave your contact and message on Phcoker.com website, then submit to Phcoker.com.

The customer service will reply you in 12 hours once received your message, then talk in details about buy Retatrutide.

Does Phcoker.com Support The Free Sample Of Retatrutide Powder?

It depends, different products with different policy, please check it with our customer service. Most of products can be accepted for sample.

Can I Appoint The Retatrutide Colour When Buy Retatrutide?

YES! Phcoker as peptide manufacturer, provide colour customization of Retatrutide, easy to help you to build your Retatrutide peptide brand.

Can I Appoint The Products Standard When Buy Retatrutide From Phcoker.com?

YES! As one of the best Retatrutide manufacturer, Phcoker not only provide the standard specification of Retatrutide in 5mg, 10mg, but support standard customization. Provide the best support to build your own Retatrutide brand.

Can I Buy Retatrutide In Pure Powder Form From Phcoker.com?

YES! Retatrutide powder is the base that use for Retatrutide lyophilized powder manufacture. Phcoker provide Retatrutide in both of pure powder form and semi-finished vial form.

Can I Buy Discount Retatrutide Powder From Phcoker.com?

YES! Our factory produce high quality Retatrutide powder in term and keep Retatrutide powder in stock. You can buy high quality Retatrutide powder in bulk. During promotion sale, you can buy Retatrutide peptide by lower price. You can keep touch with our customer manager and they will update the latest bulk Retatrutide price for you in time.

 

FAQ


What is Eli Lilly’s latest weight-loss peptide?

Retatrutide. Retatrutide is the latest powerful weight loss drug launched by Eli Lilly and Company. Its weight loss effect even exceeds that of Tirzepatide, and it can help obese patients lose an average of 24% of their weight.

What is Retatrutide?

Reattrutide is a triple receptor agonist – GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. Currently awaiting FDA approval. Can significantly promote weight loss in obese patients.

Why is Retatrutide undergoing clinical studies?

The purpose of the study of the Retatrutide peptide is to evaluate its efficacy and safety in patients with obesity and established cardiovascular disease. As far as the current experimental results are concerned, Retatrutide shows a more significant effect than its control group. It can be said to be an upgraded version of Retatrutide and Tirzepatide.

What are GGG tri-agonists?

Retatrutide, also known as GGG tri-agonist, is so named because it acts as an agonist on three receptors: GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon receptors.

What is the difference between Retatrutide and Tirzepatide?

As a triple receptor agonist, Retatrutide is more potent than Tirzepatide.

① Comparison of action mechanisms:

Retatrutide achieves its intended weight loss effects primarily by targeting three hunger-regulating hormones: GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon receptors.

Tirzepatide suppresses appetite through GLP-1 and GIP, thereby promoting weight loss.

②Comparison of weight loss effects:

Retatrutide – According to relevant clinical trials, Retatrutide can help obese patients lose approximately 24% of their weight within 48 weeks. Compared with other weight loss drugs, Retatrutide can achieve more powerful effects.

Tirzepatide – Studies have shown that at the lowest dose, it can lead to 5% weight loss, and at the highest dose, it can reduce 22% at 72 weeks

Is Retatrutide approved by the FDA?

not yet. Retatrutide is currently in Phase III clinical trials and has not yet been approved by the FDA.

Is there a brand name for Retatrutide?

Since Retatrutide is still under research and has not been approved by the FDA, it does not have a trade name. The current official name is still Retatrutide.

What are the benefits of Retatrutide?

① Promote weight loss by acting on GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon receptors;

②Effectively manage type 2 diabetes;

③Prevent fatty liver disease related to metabolic dysfunction.

Is Retatrutide really effective at promoting weight loss?

YES! ! !

Retatrutide boosted average weight loss by 24% at 48 weeks, according to interim results

Does Retatrutide have any side effects?

YES

The side effects of Retatrutide are generally consistent with other weight loss drugs, mainly gastrointestinal side effects, and may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation and other adverse reactions during use. However, these reactions will gradually disappear with time of use.

Would you jump from Semaglutide to Retatrutide after Retatrutide is approved?

Some patients said they would not because it was too expensive.

Some patients said they would switch to it because current research shows that its weight loss effect is indeed better than other weight loss drugs.

The remaining people are still hesitant, worried that this powerful weight loss drug will cause harm to the body.

Can I get a prescription for Retatrutide?

It should be noted that Retatrutide is currently an investigational drug under investigation. This means that no prescription can be given to you at this time.

 

Referenced Citations


[1]Jastreboff AM, Aronne LJ, Ahmad NN, Wharton S, Connery L, Alves B, Kiyosue A, Zhang S, Liu B, Bunck MC, Stefanski A; SURMOUNT-1 Investigators.”Tirzepatide Once Weekly for the Treatment of Obesity.”N Engl J Med. 2022 Jul 21;387(3):205-216. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2206038. Epub 2022 Jun 4.PMID: 35658024

[2]Frías JP, Davies MJ, Rosenstock J, Pérez Manghi FC, Fernández Landó L, Bergman BK, Liu B, Cui X, Brown K; SURPASS-2 Investigators.”Tirzepatide versus Semaglutide Once Weekly in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.”N Engl J Med. 2021 Aug 5;385(6):503-515. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2107519. Epub 2021 Jun 25.PMID: 34170647

[3]Rosenstock J, Wysham C, Frías JP, Kaneko S, Lee CJ, Fernández Landó L, Mao H, Cui X, Karanikas CA, Thieu VT.”Efficacy and safety of a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide in patients with type 2 diabetes (SURPASS-1): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial.”Lancet. 2021 Jul 10;398(10295):143-155. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01324-6. Epub 2021 Jun 27.PMID: 34186022

[4]Syed YY.”Tirzepatide: First Approval.”Drugs. 2022 Jul;82(11):1213-1220. doi: 10.1007/s40265-022-01746-8.PMID: 35830001

[5]Karagiannis T, Avgerinos I, Liakos A, Del Prato S, Matthews DR, Tsapas A, Bekiari E.”Management of type 2 diabetes with the dual GIP/GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.”Diabetologia. 2022 Aug;65(8):1251-1261. doi: 10.1007/s00125-022-05715-4. Epub 2022 May 17.PMID: 35579691

[6]Thomas MK, Nikooienejad A, Bray R, Cui X, Wilson J, Duffin K, Milicevic Z, Haupt A, Robins DA.”Dual GIP and GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Tirzepatide Improves Beta-cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes.”J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jan 23;106(2):388-396. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa863.PMID: 33236115

[7]Min T, Bain SC.”The Role of Tirzepatide, Dual GIP and GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: The SURPASS Clinical Trials.”Diabetes Ther. 2021 Jan;12(1):143-157. doi: 10.1007/s13300-020-00981-0. Epub 2020 Dec 15.PMID: 33325008

[8]Dahl D, Onishi Y, Norwood P, Huh R, Bray R, Patel H, Rodríguez Á.”Effect of Subcutaneous Tirzepatide vs Placebo Added to Titrated Insulin Glargine on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The SURPASS-5 Randomized Clinical Trial.”JAMA. 2022 Feb 8;327(6):534-545. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.0078.PMID: 35133415

[9]Del Prato S, Kahn SE, Pavo I, Weerakkody GJ, Yang Z, Doupis J, Aizenberg D, Wynne AG, Riesmeyer JS, Heine RJ, Wiese RJ; SURPASS-4 Investigators.”Tirzepatide versus insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk (SURPASS-4): a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3 trial.”Lancet. 2021 Nov 13;398(10313):1811-1824. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02188-7. Epub 2021 Oct 18.PMID: 34672967

[10]Chavda VP, Ajabiya J, Teli D, Bojarska J, Apostolopoulos V.”Tirzepatide, a New Era of Dual-Targeted Treatment for Diabetes and Obesity: A Mini-Review.”Molecules. 2022 Jul 5;27(13):4315. doi: 10.3390/molecules27134315.PMID: 35807558

[11]Willard FS, Douros JD, Gabe MB, Showalter AD, Wainscott DB, Suter TM, Capozzi ME, van der Velden WJ, Stutsman C, Cardona GR, Urva S, Emmerson PJ, Holst JJ, D’Alessio DA, Coghlan MP, Rosenkilde MM, Campbell JE, Sloop KW.”Tirzepatide is an imbalanced and biased dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist.”JCI Insight. 2020 Sep 3;5(17):e140532. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.140532.PMID: 32730231

[12]Nauck MA, D’Alessio DA.”Tirzepatide, a dual GIP/GLP-1 receptor co-agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes with unmatched effectiveness regrading glycaemic control and body weight reduction.”Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2022 Sep 1;21(1):169. doi: 10.1186/s12933-022-01604-7.PMID: 36050763

[13]Sattar N, McGuire DK, Pavo I, Weerakkody GJ, Nishiyama H, Wiese RJ, Zoungas S.”Tirzepatide cardiovascular event risk assessment: a pre-specified meta-analysis.”Nat Med. 2022 Mar;28(3):591-598. doi: 10.1038/s41591-022-01707-4. Epub 2022 Feb 24.PMID: 35210595

[14]Forzano I, Varzideh F, Avvisato R, Jankauskas SS, Mone P, Santulli G.”Tirzepatide: A Systematic Update.”Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Nov 23;23(23):14631. doi: 10.3390/ijms232314631.PMID: 36498958

[15]Farzam K, Patel P.”Tirzepatide.”2023 May 26. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–.PMID: 36251836

 

Author of this article:


Dr. Jean Zeng graduated from king’s college london Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine.

 

Scientific Journal paper Author:


1.Prof W Timothy Garvey MD

UAB Diabetes Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

2.Sidar Copur

Department of Medicine, Koc University School of Medicine, Istanbul 34010, Turkey

3.Lyse Bordier

Hôpital Bégin, service d’endocrinologie, Saint-Mandé, France

4.Hikmat Permana

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders, Department of Internal Medicine, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, West Java, 45363, Indonesia

5.Akira Mima

Corresponding author. Department of Nephrology, Osaka Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Osaka, 569-8686, Japan.


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