HGH (Human Growth Hormone)

July 20, 2023

Phcoker is a professional HGH GMP manufacturer that provide both form of HGH(human growth hormone) powder and HGH finished lyophilized powder in vial.  The regularly manufacturing specification is HGH 10ius. Larger dosage and contract manufacturing service is available.

Monthly production capacity: >1,000,000 vials

Other Name:Human growth hormone, Growth hormone (GH), Somatotropin


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Raw HGH powder (12629-01-5) video


Sequence: Full chain
Molecular Formula: /
Molecular Weight: /
PubChem CID: 56312864
CAS Number: 12629-01-5
Synonyms: Human growth hormone, Growth hormone (GH), somatotropin


Human growth hormone, also known as HGH and Somatotropin, is a natural hormone produced and released by the pituitary gland that acts on many parts of the body to promote growth in children, help maintain normal body structure in adults, and develop in children and adults. play a role in metabolism. In the world of anti-aging and performance enhancement, human growth hormone (HGH) is attracting a lot of attention. Many people are looking for ways to optimize their vitality and health, leading them to explore the potential benefits of HGH peptides. Here, we delve into the world of HGH peptides, examining their mechanisms of action, potential benefits, and safety considerations. So, let’s dive into the secrets of HGH peptide.

What Is Human Growth Hormone (HGH)?

Human growth hormone (HGH) is a crucial hormone produced by the pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a vital role in growth during childhood and adolescence, influencing bone and cartilage formation, muscle and fat distribution, and overall body composition. HGH levels typically peak during puberty and gradually decline with age.

In addition to its role in growth, HGH also has various functions in adults, including maintaining bone density, regulating metabolism, and supporting overall organ and tissue health. It interacts with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to regulate these processes.

Synthetic forms of HGH, known as recombinant HGH, are called Somatotropin (INN) is used as a prescription drug to treat children’s growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. In the United States, it is only available legally from pharmacies by prescription from a licensed health care provider. In recent years in the United States, some health care providers are prescribing growth hormone in the elderly to increase vitality. However, it’s important to use synthetic HGH only under medical supervision and with a valid prescription, as misuse can lead to serious health risks.

In recent years, due to the increased demand for HGH, the price of HGH has been rising, so people have begun to buy HGH online. As the injection product, it must be careful to choose the HGH supplier when buying HGH online. A professional HGH factory need to meet strict production standards, and the product must be 100% pharmaceutical grade. Don’t be greedy for cheap and buy HGH without quality assurance.

HGH Structure

HGH Structure

The major isomer of human growth hormone is a protein composed of 191 amino acids with a molecular weight of 22,124 daltons. The structure includes four helices necessary for functional interaction with the GH receptor. Structurally, GH is evolutionarily similar to prolactin and chorionic growth hormone. Despite clear structural similarities between growth hormones from different species, only human and Old World monkey growth hormones have significant effects on human growth hormone receptors.

Several molecular isomers of GH are present in the pituitary gland and released into the blood. In particular, a variant of approximately 20 kDa originated by an alternative splicing is present in a rather constant 1:9 ratio, while recently an additional variant of ~ 23-24 kDa has also been reported in post-exercise states at higher proportions. This variant has not been identified, but it has been suggested to coincide with a 22 kDa glycosylated variant of 23 kDa identified in the pituitary gland. Furthermore, these variants circulate partially bound to a protein (growth hormone-binding protein, GHBP), which is the truncated part of the growth hormone receptor, and an acid-labile subunit (ALS).

Signs of Growth Hormone Deficiency

Low HGH levels can cause a number of issues. Physical implications might include a decrease in energy or a rise in cardiovascular problems. Low HGH levels can also cause mental health issues such as sadness, anxiety, brain fog, and loss of attention. However, many other conditions or illnesses can exhibit similar symptoms. So, how can you determine whether you have low HGH levels? Let’s look at these five frequent indicators in more detail below.

Increased Body Fat

HGH contributes to the body’s metabolic activities and composition, which include fat, protein, minerals, and water. These hormones also aid in lipolysis, the breakdown of fat in our bodies. When HGH levels are low, your body is unable to adequately metabolize fat, which can lead to various medical difficulties such as high insulin levels, increased fatty acid levels, and decreased ghrelin levels.

Ghrelin is mostly located in the stomach, although it is also present in the small intestine, pancreas, and brain. It is known as the “hunger hormone” because it increases appetite and promotes fat accumulation. As a result, decreased pituitary gland HGH output might lead to an increase in body fat, particularly around the waist.

Depression and Anxiety

Human growth hormone is critical in assisting the body’s  restoration. Low HGH levels can dramatically impair the body’s healing system, altering how effectively your mind and body can cope with sadness and anxiety. A decrease in HGH can also cause irritation, increased discomfort, and decreased energy.

This is especially true for teens with low HGH levels. They may have poor self-esteem if they are having growth or maturity delays. Young women’s bodies, for example, may not develop at the same rate as their peers’. When compared to their contemporaries, young males may endure delayed changes such as voice variations or facial hair growth.

Decreased Sexual Desire

Low HGH levels might contribute to a reduction in sexual activity and desire. Significantly reduced HGH levels can also have an influence on blood circulation, interfering with sexual capacity and activity.

Sexual organs require regular blood flow in order to operate. Low HGH levels might interfere with sexual enjoyment, making it exceedingly difficult to attain climax. HGH is responsible for lubrication and the increased sensitivity of the nerves in the vaginal region in women. Both of these activities are pleasurable and enhance women’s sexual experiences. Low HGH levels not only lower sexual desire, but can also make sex unpleasant, if not painful.

Fragile or Thin Skin

HGH is essential for skin healing, maintenance, and development, according to research. You may have low HGH levels if you have fragile or thin skin. When you attempt to boost HGH levels, you may see fewer wrinkles, firmer or tauter skin, increased muscular mass, and an overall younger appearance.

Reduced Muscle Mass

Muscle health is important for a number of reasons. It helps with bodily activities including breathing, digestion, and movement. Strong muscles help safeguard our interior organs, metabolize fat and glucose, and regulate our body temperature. Low HGH levels have a direct impact on the health of your muscles, which can therefore have a detrimental impact on the body processes described above.acids with a molecular weight of 22,124 daltons. The structure includes four helices.


What Result In A Growth Dysfunction?

As mentioned, synthetic HGH can be used to treat adults with growth hormone deficiencies. As people age, their production of natural HGH decreases; however, in certain cases, people may stop producing HGH prematurely or because of an illness, such as HIV/AIDS. The following health conditions can result in a growth dysfunction:

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Pituitary tumors or cancer
  • Low birth weight
  • Turner syndrome, a genetic condition
  • Prader-Willi syndrome, a genetic condition that can cause obesity, type 2 diabetes, shortness, and mental disabilities
  • Short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the small or large intestine does not function properly or requires removal
  • HIV or AIDS

If you have a growth hormone deficiency because of one of the above conditions or another cause, you may benefit from HGH treatment, it’s a good idea to consult from Phcoker.com.

What Are The Benefits Of HGH Peptide?

HGH is available as a prescription drug that is administered by injection. GH is indicated for children with GH deficiency and other children with short stature. It is also approved to treat growth hormone deficiency in adults—a rare disorder that almost always occurs in conjunction with significant problems affecting the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, or both. Diagnosis of GH deficiency in adults depends on special tests to stimulate GH production; simple blood tests are useless at best and misleading at worst.

Adults with true GH deficiency can benefit from GH injections. They can protect against fractures, increase muscle mass, improve athletic ability and energy, and reduce the risk of future heart disease. But there’s a price to pay. Up to 30 percent of patients experience side effects, including fluid retention, joint and muscle pain, carpal tunnel syndrome (compression of nerves in the wrist causing pain and numbness in the hand), and high blood sugar.

Human growth hormone (HGH) offers several benefits in the body, primarily divided into its roles in stimulating growth and impacting metabolism. Here are the main benefits of HGH you would like to know:

HGH for Stimulating Growth

HGH plays a crucial role in stimulating growth in children by promoting the growth of almost every tissue and organ in the body. It is particularly known for its effect on cartilage and bone growth during childhood and adolescence, aiding in increasing height. Cells in cartilage (chondrocytes) and bones (osteoblasts) receive signals from HGH to increase replication and allow for size expansion.

However, once the growth plates in bones have fused, HGH no longer influences height but continues to maintain normal body structure throughout life.

HGH for Impacting Metabolism

HGH influences metabolism by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and affecting cells throughout the body. IGF-1, similar in structure to insulin, helps regulate the effects of HGH and has glucose-lowering properties.

HGH affects metabolism by promoting protein synthesis, stimulating fat utilization, and interfering with insulin action. It plays a role in transporting molecules, conserving sugars, building proteins, and breaking down fats, which are all crucial aspects of metabolism.


While HGH generally raises blood glucose levels when they fall too low, excess HGH in the body can counteract the effects of insulin, leading to elevated blood glucose levels.

HGH for Doping and Athletic

Adults who are GH deficient get larger muscles, more energy, and improved exercise capacity from replacement therapy. Athletes work hard to build their muscles and enhance performance. Some also turn to GH.

The use of human growth hormone (HGH) as a doping agent in sports is a contentious issue with significant risks and little proven benefit in terms of athletic performance enhancement. While some athletes may turn to HGH to gain larger muscles, increased energy, and improved exercise capacity, research suggests that the actual effects of HGH on performance are limited, and its use comes with potential health risks and consequences.

HGH for Anti-Aging

Human growth hormone (HGH) has garnered attention as a potential anti-aging supplement due to its decline in production as people age. However, research on its safety and efficacy in healthy older individuals is still limited. Despite its potential benefits in increasing muscle mass and possibly providing a sense of improved well-being for some individuals, HGH supplementation is not a proven fountain of youth. Its use comes with significant risks and side effects, and more research is needed to better understand its effects on aging and overall health. Additionally, HGH supplementation should only be administered under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it is currently only available in injection form and has not been proven effective in other forms.

Overall, human growth hormone plays a vital role in promoting growth during childhood and adolescence and maintains various metabolic functions throughout life. However, it’s important to maintain balanced levels of HGH, as excess or deficiency can lead to health complications. If you want to buy online, it’s best to find a reputable HGH supplier, such as Phcoker.com, or a HGH manufacturer recommended by someone who has used it.

HGH Side Effects And Safety

Human growth hormone (HGH) supplementation, especially when not supervised by a physician or when obtained illicitly, can lead to various side effects and potential hazards. These side effects can include:

  • Injection-site reactions
  • Swelling
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • High cholesterol levels
  • Increased risk of diabetes
  • Cancer risk

It’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional before considering HGH supplementation, especially for anti-aging purposes. A physician can assess your individual health status, discuss potential risks and benefits, and monitor your treatment to ensure safety and efficacy. Obtaining HGH without proper medical supervision can pose significant health risks, as counterfeit products and unapproved formulations may be of uncertain quality and safety.

How To Use HGH Peptide?

This will be explained to you during your consultation with HGH manufacturer, and your dose will be tailored specifically to your circumstances. It’s necessary to administer HGH through intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. It’s essential that HGH is stored correctly as it is quite fragile and needs to be protected from heat and light. It should be stored in a cool fridge at between 2°C to 6°C both before and after reconstitution. There are very few brands that can withstand normal room temperatures before they are mixed or reconstituted, and all brands must be stored in a refrigerator once they are reconstituted.

HGH Theraph And Sermorelin Theraph

HGH therapy and Sermorelin therapy both aim to increase human growth hormone (HGH) levels in the body, but they achieve this through different mechanisms. Let’s view the details:

HGH Therapy

HGH is human growth hormone: a substance naturally produced by the pituitary gland. During adolescence, HGH is part of what triggers overall body growth. Growth hormone also regulates things like cell growth, metabolism, and bone density. But after the age of 40, HGH levels fall to nearly half. This can create side effects in the body such as a decrease in muscle mass, increase in body fat, and low stamina.

HGH therapy involves directly adding more of the growth hormone into your system. HGH supplements are typically expensive, synthetically produced injections.

Sermorelin Therapy

Sermorelin is a specific growth hormone-releasing factor (GHRH). This means it is a bioidentical hormone that stimulates your pituitary gland to produce more HGH. As we get older, our pituitary gland produces fewer hormones. Adding a GHRH like Sermorelin means your body can naturally raise your hormone levels to a more youthful state.

In treatment, Sermorelin is given in a series of injections using a very slim needle (similar to what a diabetic uses to inject insulin). These injections are initially used daily, but the frequency is decreased over time once optimal HGH levels are reached.

HGH Vs Sermorelin

In summary, while both HGH therapy and Sermorelin therapy aim to increase HGH levels in the body, Sermorelin therapy prompts the body to naturally produce more HGH, whereas HGH therapy involves direct supplementation with synthetic HGH. Sermorelin therapy may be considered safer and more effective by some due to its ability to stimulate the body’s natural hormone production.

HGH and Testosterone

HGH and testosterone are essential for men’s health. Deficiencies in either can result in fatigue, difficulty recovering from workouts, fat retention, muscle mass loss, and troubles in the bedroom. Men who suspect they may have low levels of either of these hormones should consult a men’s healthcare expert.

Testosterone is the primary hormone responsible for the development of male sexual traits such as muscular growth, body hair, and a deep voice. It also helps to regulate mood, bone density, and general energy levels. HGH, on the other hand, is in charge of tissue development and repair, including bone, muscle, and organ tissues. It also helps to regulate metabolism and body composition.

While both hormones can be given to treat specific medical disorders, such as hormonal imbalances, they are not interchangeable. HGH is not a testosterone replacement, and vice versa. In fact, misusing or abusing either hormone can result in major health issues.

Before beginning any hormone replacement medication, it is critical to speak with a medical expert. They can advise you on whether HGH or testosterone therapy is right for you and walk you through the potential dangers and advantages.

HGH Fragment 176-191

HGH Fragment 176-191 is getting more attention as a solution for losing weight. The synthetic peptide is specifically designed to promote weight loss and improve metabolism. Even better, Fragment 176-191 does so without introducing the body to harmful and dangerous compounds or side effects.

Interested? Discover more about Fragment 176-191 in the review of the peptide below:

What HGH Fragment 176-191 can be used for?

HGH Frag 176-191, also known as Fragment 176-191 or HGH Fragment, is a synthetic peptide derived from amino acids 176-191 of the human growth hormone (HGH). It’s recognized for its potential in weight loss and anti-aging effects. Here’s a summary of its key aspects:

Weight Loss Benefits

HGH Fragment 176-191 is designed to aid in weight loss by stimulating the production of growth hormone and regulating fat metabolism. It targets fat cells specifically, promoting fat burning while sparing muscle tissue.

Improved Metabolism

By focusing on fat metabolism, HGH Fragment 176-191 helps individuals overcome the challenges of weight loss, especially when traditional methods like exercise and dieting yield minimal results.

Muscle Growth

Alongside its fat-burning properties, HGH Fragment 176-191 also supports muscle growth and repair. This makes it a valuable supplement for individuals looking to achieve a leaner physique.

Appetite Control

The peptide has been reported to help manage appetite and reduce late-night hunger cravings, aiding in adherence to dietary goals.

Anti-Aging Properties

HGH Fragment 176-191 exhibits anti-aging properties, contributing to a youthful appearance and improved overall well-being. It may help individuals combat the signs of aging and maintain a more youthful appearance.

Safety Profile

Compared to synthetic HGH injections, HGH Fragment 176-191 is considered safer and more reliable. It offers similar benefits without some of the potential adverse effects associated with exogenous HGH therapy.

Ongoing Research

While HGH Fragment 176-191 shows promising results, further clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety across diverse populations. Ongoing research aims to deepen understanding of its mechanisms of action and potential applications.

In summary, HGH Fragment 176-191 represents a novel approach to weight loss and anti-aging, offering targeted effects on fat metabolism and growth hormone production. Its potential benefits make it an area of active interest in scientific research and development.

HGH Fragment 176-191 Weight Stacks (Cutting & Bulking Up)

Combining Fragment 176-191 with other peptides and compounds in a weight stack can enhance its effects on weight loss by burning fat. By incorporating these peptides below, individuals can experience even greater results in their weight loss journey.

GHRP-2 and GHRP-6: These growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) work synergistically with Fragment 176-191 to stimulate the release of growth hormone, which aids in fat loss and muscle preservation during a cutting phase.

Melanotan 2: While primarily known for its tanning effects, Melanotan 2 also has appetite-suppressing properties, which can complement the weight loss efforts of Fragment 176-191 by helping to control calorie intake.

Liquid Growth Hormone: Supplementing with liquid growth hormone can further amplify the effects of Fragment 176-191 on fat metabolism and muscle preservation, potentially leading to more pronounced weight loss results.

BPC-157: This peptide is known for its healing properties, which can be beneficial during intense workouts or in case of injuries, allowing individuals to maintain their training intensity and consistency while on a cutting regimen.

TB-500: Similar to BPC-157, TB-500 promotes tissue repair and recovery, potentially reducing the risk of overuse injuries and aiding in the maintenance of muscle mass during calorie restriction.

CJC 1295 Ipamorelin: This combination stimulates the release of growth hormone and has been shown to promote fat loss and muscle gain, making it an effective addition to a weight stack focused on cutting.

Overall, combining peptides and compounds, it’s important to follow proper dosage guidelines and consult with a healthcare professional to ensure both safety and effectiveness. With the right approach, you can achieve your desired results safely and efficiently!

When it comes to sourcing peptides, it’s important to work with a reputable supplier to ensure both purity and potency. That’s why I highly recommend Phcoker (Polypeptide), a professional GMP manufacturer that specializes in HGH Frag 176-191. By combining Fragment 176-191 with other peptides in a weight stack, you can maximize its benefits and accelerate your progress towards your weight loss goals!

HGH For Sale | HGH Supplier

Human Growth Hormone (HGH), a peptide of great importance, offers diverse potential benefits, from optimizing bodily functions and boosting energy to regulating metabolism. It holds promise against obesity, diabetes, and for muscle health, even potentially influencing aging. To maximize its potential, thorough research is vital.

For researchers delving into HGH experimentation, sourcing from a reputable provider is key. Acquiring HGH demands caution to ensure its quality and authenticity. Notably, Phcoker stands out as a trusted manufacturer with a track record of providing pharmaceutical grade peptides. This underscores the essential connection between reliable sourcing and successful peptide-based research.



HGH peptide, an important growth factor, holds significant influence over diverse physiological processes. As a vital player in cellular growth and repair, HGH exerts regulatory control on metabolism, tissue development, and immune function. Being an eminent member of the peptide family, HGH’s implications extend to various domains, from anti-aging strategies to wellness enhancement.

For those in search of a reputable and esteemed HGH peptide factory or manufacturer, your quest concludes here. This is the definitive destination that meets your requirements.

Renowned for its role as a prominent anti-aging agent, HGH contributes substantially to the regulation of cardiovascular health, diabetes management, physical performance, and lifespan extension. Studies underscore its function as an exercise-responsive mitochondrial coding regulator. Notably, HGH levels in tissues and circulation often decline with age, signifying its significance in the aging process.

Phcoker stands as a premier HGH manufacturer. Our expertise does not only supply HGH powder but also excels in offering HGH vials, ensuring ease of use and adherence to standards. With us, you’re poised to acquire HGH of exceptional quality and value. You can buy the best price HGH and best quality peptide from this professional peptide manufacturer.


Where to buy

Would you like to buy the best Human Growth Hormone(HGH) peptide from the best HGH suppliers in the market? You have come at the right place!

Phcoker.com as a peptide factory, is the best place where you can buy HGH in compeptitive price, from small to bulk quantity. Click and make a contact, you will get all the details. Before buy HGH, you may curious:

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Does Phcoker.com Support The Free Sample Of HGH Powder?

It depends, different products with different policy, please check it with our customer service. Most of products can be accepted for sample.

Can I Appoint The HGH Colour When Buy HGH?

YES! Phcoker as peptide manufacturer, provide colour customization of HGH, easy to help you to build your HGH peptide brand.

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YES! Our factory produce high quality HGH powder in term and keep HGH powder in stock. You can buy high quality HGH powder in bulk. During promotion sale, you can buy HGH peptide by lower price. You can keep touch with our customer manager and they will update the latest bulk HGH price for you in time.



What is HGH therapy?

HGH, or human growth hormone, is naturally produced by your body throughout the course of your life. During childhood and adolescence, it’s important for fueling growth. And as an adult, you need HGH to keep all of your organs and tissues in optimal health. Unfortunately, the production of HGH starts to decline sometime around middle age-and even earlier for some people.

HGH therapy is designed to replenish your hormonal levels and restore a more ideal balance so that your body has everything it needs for proper function. This treatment uses a scientifically-developed form of HGH, called “synthetic” (man-made) human growth hormone.

When is the best time to Use HGH?

People aged from their late 30s to early 50s should inject HGH in the early morning upon waking. Those aged in their late 50s or older or those who have a pituitary gland that is incapable of normally releasing HGH should inject just before bedtime. These timings are designed to closely mimic the natural pattern that would occur if the pituitary gland was functioning normally.

Will HGH keep me from aging?

In fact, there currently are no procedures or products commercially available that will keep you from aging. However, using HGH responsibly under an experienced, and highly specialized physician’s supervision, can help significantly suppress the symptoms of aging.

Are HGH peptides safe?

HGH peptides are generally considered safe when used responsibly and under medical supervision. However, as with any medication or supplement, there may be potential side effects and contraindications. It is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional before initiating HGH peptide therapy.

Do I need any tests before using HGH?

Before you see a doctor, the first step is to have various tests carried out which include blood tests such as testosterone testing, and a GH hormone test. This will help ensure that you receive customised therapy to deal with your issues.

Do HGH peptides require a prescription?

In many countries, HGH peptides are regulated substances that require a prescription. However, the specific regulations may vary depending on the jurisdiction. It is essential to research and understand the regulations in your jurisdiction before using them.

How are HGH peptides administered?

HGH peptides are typically administered via subcutaneous injections. These HGH injections are relatively painless and can be self-administered with proper training and guidance from a healthcare professional.

How long does it take to see results from HGH peptide therapy?

The timeframe for experiencing the effects of HGH peptide therapy may vary among individuals. Some individuals may notice improvements within a few weeks, while others may require several months of consistent therapy to observe significant changes. Patience and adherence to the recommended protocol are key.

Can HGH peptides be used for bodybuilding purposes?

HGH peptides have gained popularity in the bodybuilding community due to their potential muscle growth and weight loss effects. However, it is important to note that the use of HGH peptides for non-medical purposes is often considered off-label and may carry additional risks. It is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate and safe approach.

 Are there any alternatives to HGH peptides?

While HGH peptides offer unique advantages, there are alternative strategies to naturally enhance growth hormone production. These include optimizing sleep, engaging in regular exercise, maintaining a balanced diet, managing stress levels, and avoiding unhealthy lifestyle habits. These lifestyle factors may positively influence growth hormone levels and overall well-being.

Referenced Citations

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[2]Saugy M, Robinson N, Saudan C, Baume N, Avois L, Mangin P (July 2006). “Human growth hormone doping in sport”. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 40 (Suppl 1): i35–9. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.027573. PMC 2657499. PMID 16799101

[3] Yi S, Bernat B, Pál G, Kossiakoff A, Li WH (July 2002). “Functional promiscuity of squirrel monkey growth hormone receptor toward both primate and nonprimate growth hormones”. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 19 (7): 1083–92

[4]Leung KC, Howe C, Gui LY, Trout G, Veldhuis JD, Ho KK (October 2002). “Physiological and pharmacological regulation of 20-kDa growth hormone”. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 283 (4): E836–43. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00122.2002. PMID 12217902

[5]Kohler M, Püschel K, Sakharov D, Tonevitskiy A, Schänzer W, Thevis M (November 2008). “Detection of recombinant growth hormone in human plasma by a 2-D PAGE method”. Electrophoresis. 29 (22): 4495–502. doi:10.1002/elps.200800221. PMID 19003817. S2CID 22525768

[6]Takahashi Y, Kipnis DM, Daughaday WH (September 1968). “Growth hormone secretion during sleep”. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 47 (9): 2079–90. doi:10.1172/JCI105893. PMC 297368. PMID 5675428

[7]Mehta A, Hindmarsh PC (2002). “The use of somatropin (recombinant growth hormone) in children of short stature”. Paediatric Drugs. 4 (1): 37–47. doi:10.2165/00128072-200204010-00005. PMID 11817985. S2CID 23663131

[8]Juul A, Jørgensen JO, Christiansen JS, Müller J, Skakkeboek NE (1995). “Metabolic effects of GH: a rationale for continued GH treatment of GH-deficient adults after cessation of linear growth”. Hormone Research. 44 Suppl 3 (3): 64–72. doi:10.1159/000184676. PMID 8719443

[9]Lin-Su K, Wajnrajch MP (December 2002). “Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) and the GHRH Receptor”. Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders. 3 (4): 313–23. doi:10.1023/A:1020949507265. PMID 12424433. S2CID 6263928

[10]Meinhardt UJ, Ho KK (October 2006). “Modulation of growth hormone action by sex steroids”. Clinical Endocrinology. 65 (4): 413–22. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2006.02676.x. PMID 16984231. S2CID 20688016

[11]Low LC (1991). “Growth hormone-releasing hormone: clinical studies and therapeutic aspects”. Neuroendocrinology. 53 (Suppl 1): 37–40. doi:10.1159/000125793. PMID 1901390

[12]Alba-Roth J, Müller OA, Schopohl J, von Werder K (December 1988). “Arginine stimulates growth hormone secretion by suppressing endogenous somatostatin secretion”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 67 (6): 1186–9. doi:10.1210/jcem-67-6-1186. PMID 2903866. S2CID 7488757

[13]Kanaley JA, Weltman JY, Veldhuis JD, Rogol AD, Hartman ML, Weltman A (November 1997). “Human growth hormone response to repeated bouts of aerobic exercise”. Journal of Applied Physiology. 83 (5): 1756–61. doi:10.1152/jappl.1997.83.5.1756. PMID 9375348

[14]Scarth JP (2006). “Modulation of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis by pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and environmental xenobiotics: an emerging role for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and the transcription factors regulating their expression. A review”. Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems. 36 (2–3): 119–218. doi:10.1080/00498250600621627. PMID 16702112. S2CID 40503492

[15]Ahmad A, Thomas J, Clewes A, Hokins MT, Guzder R, Ibrahim H, Durham B, Vora JP, Fraser WD (2003-06-01). “Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement on Parathyroid Hormone Sensitivity and Bone Mineral Metabolism”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 88 (6): 2860–2868. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-021787. PMID 12788900

[16]Molitch ME, Clemmons DR, Malozowski S, Merriam GR, Shalet SM, Vance ML, Stephens PA (May 2006). “Evaluation and treatment of adult growth hormone deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 91 (5): 1621–34. doi:10.1210/jc.2005-2227. PMID 16636129

[17] Dutta D, Mahajan K, Kumar M, Sharma M (Feb 2022). “Efficacy and safety of long-acting growth hormone in adult growth hormone deficiency: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 16 (2): 102421. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2022.102421. PMID 35158212. S2CID 246689650

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Author of this article:

Dr. Jean Zeng graduated from king’s college london Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine.


Scientific Journal paper Author:

1.M.A. Czepielewski

Serviço de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

2.Ana C.S.C. Menezes

Biotechnology Center, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN – CNEN/SP, São Paulo, Brazil

3.Vaishnavi Parikh

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, 600 S 43rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

4.Jaume Bosch

Bioanalysis Group IMIM-Parc Salut Mar and Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB), Barcelona, Spain

5.Tamra L. Hunsaker

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27834, USA


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