Pyrroloquinoline quinone(PQQ) (72909-34-3) Specifications
|Product Name||Pyrroloquinoline quinone(PQQ)|
|Chemical Name||Coenzyme PQQ;Methoxatine;Pyrrolo-quinoline quinone;
Pyrroloquinolinequinone,4,5-Dihydro-4,5-dioxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-f]quinoline-2,7,9-tricarboxylic acid, Methoxatin, PQQ;4,5-Dioxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-f]quinoline-2,7,9-tricarboxylic acid
|Monoisotopic Mass||330.012415 g/mol|
|Boliing Point||1018.6±65.0 °C(Predicted)|
|Flashing Point||569.8 °C (1,057.6 °F; 842.9 K)|
|Solubility||Soluble in water|
|Application||PQQ has been reported to function as a water soluble vitamin/cofactor and as an antioxidant. It is also intended for use in dietary supplements, such as energy, meal replacement, and fortified bars etc.|
What is Pyrroloquinoline quinone(PQQ)?
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), also called methoxatin, is a redox cofactor. It is found in soil and foods such as kiwifruit, as well as human breast milk. Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a pyrroloquinoline having oxo groups at the 4- and 5-positions and carboxy groups at the 2-, 7- and 9-positions. It has a role as a water-soluble vitamin and a cofactor. And, it is a signaling agent for proteins kinases involved in differentiation of mammalian cells. The high redox recycling ability of PQQ may give it a pharmacological role in protecting against neurodegeneration and cancer. (As a redox agent, Pyrroloquinoline quinone is extremely stable and can participate in hundreds more reactions than other antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, and epicatechin.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone is a novel biofactor, and was recognized as an enzyme cofactor in bacteria. Researchs show that Pyrroloquinoline quinone may have been present throughout early biological conception and evolution. As a potent plant growth factor, it exists in the growth of animals and humans. Pyrroloquinoline quinone is reported to participate in a range of biological functions with apparent survival benefits (e.g., improved neonatal growth and reproductive performance) in animals.
Moreover, Pyrroloquinoline quinone has antioxidant and B-vitamin-like activity, with a wide range of benefits for the brain and body. It promotes cognitive health and memory by combatting mitochondrial dysfunction and protecting neurons from oxidative damage. Clinical studies in humans have shown that Pyrroloquinoline quinone enhances short-term memory and attention, improves energy metabolism and healthy aging, and reduces markers of inflammation, as well as improving general feelings of well-being.
How does Pyrroloquinoline quinone(PQQ) work?
Rat studies show impressive efficacy for Pyrroloquinoline quinone in stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis. Rat hepatocytes incubated with PQQ at 10–30 μM for 24–48 h exhibited “increased citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activity, Mitotracker staining, mitochondrial DNA content, and cellular oxygen respiration. The induction of this process occurred through the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a pathway known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis.” In vivo studies in rats also show beneficial effects from dietary supplementation with PQQ(2mg PQQ/kg of food). These include decreased plasma triglycerides, increased energy expenditure (correlated with hepatic mitochondrial content), and improved tolerance to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. Experimental models of stroke and spinal cord injury show that Pyrroloquinoline quinone attenuates neuronal cell death, in part through Pyrroloquinoline quinone protecting N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. Rat models of Parkinson’s disease show that Pyrroloquinoline quinone supplementation decreases neuronal loss, increases reactive oxygen species scavenging ability, and offersneuroprotection through additional mechanisms.
The benefits of Pyrroloquinoline quinone(PQQ) benefits
In the brain and body, PQQ has a wide range of benefits.
– PQQ supports optimal mitochondrial function
Mitochondria are the energy producers in our cells and they play an important role in our overall health. PQQ by protecting existing mitochondria and promotes mitochondrial generation, so produce ATP (Energy). More functional mitochondria, more energy.
– PQQ supports nerve growth factors
PQQ stimulates production of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF.), protects and restores damaged brain and nerve cells, so prevents cognitive decline (memory loss, learning difficulty, etc.) due to age, stroke or neurodegenerative disorders., and promotes immune and antioxidant functions, and protection from cardiac and neurological ischemic events.
– PQQ prevents oxidative stress
PQQ provides powerful antioxidant protection, protects cells in the body from oxidative damage and demage free radicals. It supports the metabolism of energy and healthy aging, and considered a novel cofactor with antioxidant and B vitamin-like activity.
Besides, PQQ may also have prevent and treat the liver damage and strong anticancer function.
The application/use of Pyrroloquinoline quinone(PQQ)
In a 2009 study published in the medical journal Food Style, Pyrroloquinoline Quinone has been shown to have the ability to help protect. It be used to treat cognitive decline (memory loss, learning difficulty, etc.) due to age, stroke or neurodegenerative disorders, and protection from cardiac and neurological ischemic events. Similar results were reported in a 2011 follow-up study in which Pyrroloquinoline Quinone was also given directly as a dietary supplement, such as milk-based meal replacement beverages.
How to get enough Pyrroloquinoline quinone(PQQ)?
In life, you can get some PQQ from some foods sourse, it’s naturally present in a variety of foods and drinks, including green peppers, parsley, tea or kiwifruit etc. However, if count the amount of food a person eats every day, most of us can’t get enough PQQ from our daily diet. Therefore, if you want more greater benefits, you may get more PQQ by some other ways, such as PQQ dietary supplement.
- Drain, Kelsey (12 February 2017). “Natural Antioxidant Could Prevent Liver Disease”. msn.com. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Ameyama M, Matsushita K, Shinagawa E, Hayashi M, Adachi O (1988). “Pyrroloquinoline quinone: excretion by methylotrophs and growth stimulation for microorganisms”. BioFactors. 1 (1): 51–3. PMID 2855583.
- Felton LM, Anthony C (2005). “Biochemistry: role of PQQ as a mammalian enzyme cofactor?”. Nature. 433 (7025): E10, discussion E11–2. doi:10.1038/nature03322. PMID 15689995.
- Westerling J, Frank J, Duine JA (1979). “The prosthetic group of methanol dehydrogenase from Hyphomicrobium X: electron spin resonance evidence for a quinone structure”. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 87 (3): 719–24. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(79)92018-7. PMID 222269.
- Matsutani M, Yakushi T. Pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent dehydrogenases of acetic acid bacteria.Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Nov;102(22):9531-9540. doi: 10.1007/s00253-018-9360-3. Epub 2018 Sep 15. PMID: 30218379.
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